Picture of Arthur Young

Arthur Young


places mentioned

1791 Tour from Birmingham to Suffolk

Previous Selection

The 4th. In the evening, quitted Birmingham with Mr. Bakewell, and reached Sutton Cofield. I was struck with surprise to find so much waste land in the vicinity of the vast manufactures I had quitted, nor is there any thing in the husbandry of these nine miles which allows, for a moment, a supposition of the fabrics of so considerable a town having had any effect in working improvements, which it must be confessed is a strange circumstance.

The 5th. Rode to examine some works carrying on under the direction of Mr. Elkington, a singularly able drainer, whom I shall have more occasions than one to mention. In this excursion, which was entirely over great regions of land, absolutely waste, I had abundant occasion to be confirmed in the remark I made last night on the want of effect in manufactures to enforce cultivation. Here are at least 10,000 acres contiguous, which yield no other produce but that of feeding some wretched commoning cattle; for I was assured that we might ride to the extent of nearly 30 miles without quitting these contiguous wastes. All that I saw of them are highly and cheaply improveable. What a disgrace to the political institutions of a kingdom whose government, trembling lest the people should want bread to eat, are constantly encouraging the import of foreign corn and cattle, butter and cheese, and hides and wool, yet permit such wastes as these to remain, even at the gates of such a market as Birmingham ! Are not such instances, innumerable in every quarter of this kingdom, continued and invariable proofs that British policy, in relation to agriculture, is not only deficient but mischievous? And does it not prove that the circuitous system of encouraging agriculture, only through the medium of manufactures, is a paltry vicious idea that tends, as it has actually happened, to perpetuate wastes even in the very smoke of the greatest fabrics ! so little able is commerce to work improvements. when direct assistance is not immediately given to cultivation, by the power of inclosure and the annihilation of tythes.

In passing over this great common of Sutton Cofield, we were conducted to a spring of clear water, famous for curing the itch, scorbutic eruptions, the evil, and other complaints; on enquiring why some house and other accommodations had not been erected near it, we were told that many applications with that view had been made to the corporation of the town, but always rejected, lest the throng of people in consequence, should be destructive of their game. A pretty motive ! Can we wonder that no steps are taken towards inclosing these wastes?

One improvement in the neighbourhood, on land fimilar to these commons, but private poverty, I heard of, in which 2s. an acre rent was paid for 30 years, and 6d. tythe; at which rent the tenant inclosed and improved.

One portion of the common is under a very singular system; 600 acres are in alternate cultivation and common. Those who have rights , agree to cultivate this portion, which is divided into a certain number of lots, and drawn for like a lottery, those who draw the fortunate chances, may either cultivate the corresponding tracts of land themselves or fell the right to others: they were once very little valued, but now sell at 30 guineas for 20 chances; the arrangement is rather intricate, and was not clearly explained: but these lots have been grubbed and marled only for four years culture; after which period they are thrown open, and become common again: I saw 100 acres of wheat thus temporarily inclosed, which will probably yield three quarters an acre: what a loss to the community that when there is such experimented profit in the culture of these wastes, yet that they should be allowed to remain a disgrace to the nation !

These commons of Sutton are the origin of a great number of springs, which being gathered into ponds from 10 to 20, 30, and even 60 acres each, by means of heads formed across the vales, are made such use of that there are eight watermills, and yet not a drop of water that does not rise within the parish. The rent of these mills is about 20l. a year each, for which money they have the pool into the bargain; a most cheap rent, as the fish alone pays the money.

The chief object of our ride was to view Mr. Elkington's works, who we were informed was engaged by some of the owners of these mills to bring them more water, by draining some boggy spots, from which the springs arise. We viewed his trenches for this purpose: it seems that this most ingenious operator had contracted with the millers to be paid only in proportion to the additional quantity of water he procured for them. As we viewed his drains, and the general declivities of the wastes around, a question arose amongst us upon the possibility of procuring more water by any drains, or cuts, or boring, than flows already in a more diffusive manner through the bogs; - except by bringing water to take a direction on one side of a hill, which in its natural course flows out on another side. Mr. Bakewell was decidedly of opinion, that a spring cannot be choaked up by mud or bog, or any impediment; and that if an open cut is driven up to the spring head, no more water will issue from it than came in a different way before. I doubt that this is a question not to be decided by reasoning; but only by experiment, and reiterated observations. The extreme solicitude which l have often remarked in the Milanese, for clearing out the heads of all springs, which feed their trenches of irrigation, clearly proves to me that they are, from long experience, convinced that a spring kept clean, and freed from all weeds, mud, and filth, will run more co. piously than if left so encumbered and impeded; they clear out the spot where it rises as clean as possible; and let into the ground casks to receive the water as it rises, and to keep off cattle from poaching and treading it. If we reason upon this practice, it should seem that they are right, even on Mr. Bakewell's principles; for if springs on hills are veins that communicate from side to side, or in any circuitous manner, one mouth may run powerfully, because others are foul and choaked up, and therefore to give the freest current possible must be right. But Mr. Elkington's practice is remarkable in one circumstance, and differs from that of any drainer I have yet known. From distance to distance at the bottom of his surfs, which are of various depths, from 3 and 4 to 6 and 7 feet, he bores with a common iron boring-rod 5 or 10 feet lower, and in doing this often finds the water rise quickly in the hole; by this operation it should seem that he has Mr. Bakewell's idea in contemplation; and it is to be noted, that by this practice he in many cases, by a single drain, lays lands dry that were not at all in the contemplation of the person who employs him, even to a considerable distance.

Supposing springs to lie in strata, nearly on a level, and to communicate from side to side of the largest hills, in such case it does not seem at all improbable but that, by draining and boring deeply on one side, you may procure more water than came before, by diverting it from the usual course; so that, by carrying on works of this sort on one side of a mountain, the other side. at some miles distance, may be drained. Thus the millers on one side of a hill may pay Mr. Elkington for bringing water to their dams, and the millers on the other side the hill prosecute him for depriving them of theirs; which, it must be confessed, would be a laughable litigation.

These, however, are no more than conjectures, and might easily be opposed by counter conjectures. It is not altogether clear that springs are thus easily to be diverted, if they have already an aperture or vent on one side of a hill, it should seem to be in consequence of the level determining the water to flow that way; but how, under this supposition, can boring perpendicularly into a ramification of that spring, change the fall which already put it in motion another way? Great difficulties occur in such a supposition; would allow the idea that springs are not so connected from one side of a hill to another, and that when Mr. Elkington bores in his surfs it is only to give a free vent to that water which had a more choaked and difficult one before: it may be remembered, that a circumstance not uncommon in digging wells seems to contradict the supposition of much connection between distant springs, and that is, water sometimes rising in wells with instant impetuosity on the men touching upon the course, filling fifty, sixty, and even seventy feet, so rapidly that the men have been in danger of drowning. Such facts imply water in a pent state, for it could hardly rise with such force if it had vent at various places. In whatever light the subject is examined, it will be found involved in too many difficulties to be easily cleared, and not at all the easier, by recurring to the theories of Des Cartes, Mariotte, de la Hire, or our own Dr. Halley.

Such works, however their operation, causes, and consequences, have infinite merit, and do great credit to the talents of this very ingenious and useful man, who will have the merit, wherever he goes, of setting men to think . No inconsiderable step, and which leads to all sorts of improvements. Get rid of that dronish, sleepy, and stupid indifference, that lazy negligence, which enchains men in the exact paths of their forefathers, without enquiry, without thought, and without ambition, and you are sure of doing good. What trains of thought, what a spirit of exertion, what a mass and power of effort have sprung in every path of life, from the works of such men as Brindley, Watt, Priestley, Harrison, Arkwright, and let me add my fellow-traveller Bakewell ! Who will tell me that the buttons at Birmingham are not better made because the tups around are better bred,-- because locks and sluices are better constructed; and that woollen cloth will not be better woven because cotton is spun in the beautiful invention of the mills? In what path of life can a man be found that will not animate his pursuit from seeing the steam engine of Watt? It is the contemplation of great exertions-it is listening to the voice of well-earned same, that gives nerve and vigour to our own endeavours - an active spring, a new movement to our minds, and that instigates and brings into life and motion all the latent energies of our nature.9

These commons of Sutton Cofield might be made a country beautifully diversified, they contain considerable woods of oak timber (at present in litigation), which, though not of a large size, are objects of much beauty; a diversity of surface that varies the views, which with the numerous ponds and springs would form a very agreeable scenery. Great tracts might be converted to rich watered meadow, for after the long drought of the present season, here are several powerful streams. No sheep are pastured; only cows, mules, and horses.

Hence take the road to Tamworth, by Drayton Basset, where we called to view the improvements carrying on in the farms, park, and grounds late belonging to the Marquis of Bath, but purchased, as it is said, by Messrs. Peele and Wilkes, for 138,000l. Pretty considerable off parts have been resold to Sir Robert Lawley, and other neighbouring gentlemen, but 3700 acres remain to be divided and improved; and it well deserves attention, that in the division of this estate full 1500l. a year might, by an injudicious or ignorant allotment, have been lost, as it would have been easy to give the stream to one person, and the lands below the water level to another; which shews, that in the division of estates, or allotment of commons, wastes, or forests, the greatest attention should be paid where there is a stream to throw that and the lands capable of being irrigated to the same person, that improvements of the highest consequence to individuals and the public may not be effectually prevented.

The improvements making in the farming line, are those chiefly of irrigation, and they are in a stile that render them one of the greatest objects to a farming traveller that is to be met with perhaps in this kingdom. A small river runs for a considerable distance through the lands; the levels have been taken by Mr. Wilkes, and canals cut large enough for the conveyance of all the water so high upon the declivities, that 1500 acres below the levels can be watered., an improvement of the most capital importance, for it is a very moderate calculation to estimate the rise at 20s. an acre rent. This, at 30 years purchase, a low price for an estate that pays no land-tax, amounts to no less a sum than 45,000l. May it not be asked, had all the stewards and agents the use of their eyes when in this country, among rivers flowing uselessly, yet capable of such immense deviations? who saw every day at Longleat the prodigious effects of water. A boggy bottom in the park is dug out in parts, and thrown into islands, which are planted with ofiers, so that the whole, to the extent of several acres, shall produce either fish or plantation. Called at Mr. Astley's, at Drayton Basset, who was so kind as to shew us a part of these improvements.

From hence we proceeded to Faseley, a part of the same great property, purchased so ably and so fortunately for the promotion of commercial speculation. This is probably the first situation for an inland town that is to be found in Great-Britain, for here is the junction of the Birmingham and Coventry canals, which unite Hull, Liverpool, Bristol, and London. So that whatever may be the projects of active industry, here is all that communication can confer: coals under the whole country, offers, perhaps of all others, the most important advantage. Here Messrs. Wilkes and Peele have built a cotton mill, which is now in full work by day, but never by night, so the objection which has been made on that account to these admirable exertions of human ingenuity do not hold here. This situation is so favourable, in relation to communication, plenty of water, cheapness of coals,10 and cheapness of labour,11 that Messrs. Peele and Wilkes may reasonably hope to be the founders of a new town on this centre of all the inland navigations of England; Tamworth is but a mile distant, with an equal command of water and an unemployed poor, a cotton mill, and a printing one are there erected, and other establishments of the same complexion forming, which will in a few years give a new face to the whole neighbourhood. In the evening reach that place, where the people are fond of the idea of by and by rivaling Manchester, and speculative visions are rising in their minds, that they ate better situated for a great manufacture than that town. They have between 2500 and 3000 people, and had once a tolerable fabric of narrow cloths, but declined so much that there are not 20 looms left. The manor and antient castle, which frowns upon the town with feudal antiquity, are the property of the Marquis Townshend, who brings in a member here; Mr. Peele (in consequence of buying the Marquis Of Bath's estate) is the other.

The 6th. To Ashby de la Zouch; called in our way on Mr. Marshal, to view a bog of several acres, drained by Mr. Elkington, which he effected with his usual success. This bog was occasioned, as they commonly, or rather always are, by springs, which he pierced into by a deep drain. boring at the bottom of it, as above described, the surf in this dry season runs no inconsiderable stream. The whole is now under oats, a very fine crop on land, which before was of no value whatever.

At the Queen's Head, at Ashby de la Zouch, dined with various spirited breeders and graziers, besides Mr. Wilkes and Mr. Bakewell, there were present Mr. Paget, Mr. Creswell, Mr. Green, Mr. Lee, &c. Among gentlemen who pursue their business with so much success, it may be supposed that the conversation was not uninteresting. I have but one fault to find, and that is their not drinking THE PLOUGH; a generic expression, which includes their favourite tups and bulls.

Walked to the ruins, which belong to Lord Rawdon, they are very extensive, and would have enjoyed from an antiquary the attention which I must give to other objects. Rents, for ten miles around Ashby, may be calculated at more than 20s. an acre, perhaps 22s. 6d. and the whole county of Leicester 16s. 6d. or 17s. The quantity of lime used through all the neighbourhood is considerable, but I could meet with very few well ascertained cases of its having been decisively useful.

The 7th. To Measham, where Mr. Wilkes shewed us his many and great improvements; the manor and estate he purchased some years ago of Mr. Wollaston, of Finborough, in Suffolk, for 50,000l. The buildings erected and erecting will speedily change the face of it. Here are two cotton and a corn mill, two steam engines; many weaving-shops, and a number of cottages built; a large and handsome inn, which is to be the sign of the tup, for Mr. Wilkes is a breeder, and a farmer on no slight scale: a few of the old thatched hovels remain to shew what this place was; what it will be may easily be conceived. But what is done here in ten or a dozen years by one man, who has been at the same time engaged in many other great undertakings, who, in union with Mr. Peele, is giving a new face to Faseley and Tamworth, cannot but make any one from the Continent admire at the wonderful exertions active in this. kingdom-and in this kingdom only, for there is nothing out of it in the manufacturing world that is not, comparatively speaking, fast asleep. Indeed this is not the only contrast, for to come from Suffolk or Norfolk hither has much the same effect. All the activity and industry of this kingdom is fast concentrating where there are coal pits; the rest of it has but one object, which is the cultivation of the soil, and to open, for a market, as immediate a connection with coals and manufactures by means of inland navigations, as possible. If all the various monopolies of wool, and woollens were removed, and sent, where they ought long ago to have gone. to the devil, the rest of England might have flourished, by means of that fabric, and the poor have met with that support they have a right to look for.

Mr. Wilkes's husbandry is as interesting as his manufacturing establishments. The greatest object is irrigation, above 400 acres being floated; as his method of performing this operation is new to me, and not touched upon in Mr. Boswell's ingenious treatise on watering, it will be necessary to explain it particularly, which I shall do the readier, as it is of all other methods of watering the most simple.

By a spirit level, he first examines and stakes out the very highest line to which the water can be conducted, from the spot where the stream enters his property; he cuts a canal in that line on the slope of each hill, which canal is at the same time a fence and may be planted with quicks; the water is let out of this at pleasure, if the cut is large, into a small parallel floating trench, but if the cut is small the canal is it elf a floating trench, and made so truly on the exact level, that when full it overflows equally from end to end. Thus the water of the stream, by a sluice-gate being let down, is forced in the canal along the highest possible level; consequently there is a space, more or less considerable, between that level and the bed of the old stream. The best way of proceeding is to throw down all banks, and fill up ditches in this space; to make the new canal the fence, and to convert to grass immediately (should any of it be arable) all the land within this level.

The next operation is to mark out exactly, on the dead level, parallel lines, from 20 to 40 yards below each other, according to circumstances, particularly the slope of the land; and as this accurate level must be kept, it follows of necessity that these lines will be zig zag, and varying in their directions according as the declivity of the land varies; and the same observation is applicable to the canal above these. Along these paralel lines are to be cut trenches, from 12 to 18 inches deep, and as much wide: they are to act as drains for conveying off the water, when the meadow has had enough; for it must be obvious that if a cut or ditch is made across them in any direction, with the slope of the land and down to the river, that the trenches would, if no means were used to prevent it, convey the water as fast as it came, and the land, except the upper division, would receive none; but in every trench there is a little sliding sluice-gate, near the cross cut or ditch, which being put down the trenches fill, and the whole of the land receives the water; but on the contrary, when the operator thinks enough has been given, or he wants to work the water on other grounds, then drawing up a sluice-gate in his canal to let the water flow in it at pleasure, and at the same time all these little gates, every drop is drawn off the ground, and it is left found, without any hanging or soaking water.

In this method of irrigating, which is so simple that it can hardly be mistaken, there is a power of variation at will, by making the parallel trenches alternately floats and drains, and conveying the water diagonally backwards and forwards.12

These explanations of this method of watering are principally applicable to slopes tolerably regular; with very small variations in the planning, the method applies, without difficulty, to all slopes; hollows there may be out of which the water must be kept, into others it may be conveyed, and drawn off by drains marked for the purpose. The intelligent reader will catch the principle of the method, and he who is used to form or examine such works will apply that principle to any slope that occurs.

Before I quit the subject of floating, I shall mention here a thought that struck me on viewing one of the steam engines, erected by Mr. Wilkes, at Measham. The great wheel of one of the cotton mills is turned by water, which is not in sufficient quantity to keep the wheel going; to remedy this, the engine is erected below to throw back the water into the mill dam, by which means a little water is made to do a great deal. The engine raises it 18 feet perpendicularly, and so considerable a quantity to the eye, that I conceived the idea of applying this immense power to the irrigation of land. Upon the application, the height, and the power, there could be no doubt, the only question was the expence? I mentioned to Mr. Wilkes my project, and entreated him to give me particularly the charge of one of these engines; the following is the result:

Old engine 8 hogsheads at a stroke, and 8 strokes in a minute. Power of Mr. Watt's improvement, as 10 to 7; old engine 3 tons of coals in 12 hours, Mr. Watt's 2 tons, not quite the double for 24 hours, at 2s. 6d. a ton. Price of erecting the engine 500l; interest of which 10 per cent.

Labour and attendance, 2s. for 12 hours. Wear and tear of repairs, &c. 4s. or double the labour; must stop for those repairs about 1 month in the year.

From these particulars it will be easy to calculate the quantity of water raised in a year, and the expence.

l. s.
Interest of 500l. 50 0
Labour and attendance, 4s. a day 62 8
Wear and tear, 8s. a-day 124 16
Coals, 1344 tons a-year, at 2s. 6d. 168 0
----
405 4
----

The quantity of water raised in a year by the new engine is 47,141,200 hogsheads; which, at the expence of 405l. is about 120 hogsheads for d. (409l. would be just in that ratio). The prodigious effect of this engine, the most astonishing of all the exertions of human invention, more especially Mr. Watt's improvement, cannot be better exemplified than in this calculation; by which it appears that 120 hogsheads of water are raised 18 feet for one farthing. It deserves notice here, that the power respecting the quantity of water raised, is in the ratio of the height, it raises 120 hogsheads 18 feet for d. it therefore raises 240 hogsheads 9 feet for the same money.

For the use of different situations, I shall note, that if coals, instead of being 2s. 6d. are 15s. a ton, the expence is then about trebled; and 120 hhds. will cost d.

Having thus ascertained the expence of raising water; the next enquiry was, how much water will irrigate an acre of land? In this journey, on another occasion, I had an opportunity of coming near this very curious and difficult fact.

A stream was measured with great accuracy, which ran 39 hogsheads in 24 minutes, or 97 in an hour or 698,400 in 300 days, allowing 65 for frosts, &c. call it 700,000 hogsheads. Now this stream, by various calculations, estimates, and observations, compared in the result with each other, and properly combined gave, as one common result, the annual value of 50l. free from all expences of preparing and floating the land, &c. which for 700,000 hogsheads13 is 2d. and about 1 /3 .d. for 120.

If 700,000 hogsheads of water are worth 50l. then 47,141,200 hogsheads are worth 3367l. which is the return per annum, by watering, free from the expence of preparing the land: which expense, however, must be in hand and ready on such undertakings; and it evidently appears from the greatness of the sum that the tract of land must be large to yield it; consequently that this part of the capital must be considerable, for instance from 3000 to 5000l.

But when the expence of raising 47,141,200 hogsheads is only 405l. with cheap coals, and 1245l. with them dear, and that the water is worth 3000l. it must be sufficiently clear, without calculating the percentage, that in any situation the benefit of applying steam engines to this use is clear and decisive. I never heard this application of them mentioned, or even thought of; and I cannot but esteem the proposition of considerable importance towards the improvement of great tracts of country, where water is plentiful, but raising it difficult: I think particularly in the fens of Cambridgeshire, that immense fortunes might be made by converting them, by this means, to watered meadow. Turf is in the utmost plenty, so as to equal coals at 6s. and 7s. a chaldron, and in some places much cheaper. This would serve the steam engine, and lands now to be had fee simple , at 10s. or 20s. an acre, presently made worth 40s. per ann. But it is the misfortune of this kingdom, that the speculations of moneyed men are so rarely turned to land, yet they might make more by it than by any other branch of industry; Mr. Wilkes has done more, and with more exertion than any one I know, but the instances are miserably rare.

The next feature in Mr. Wilkes's husbandry, and not less interesting, is that of burning . He conceives, and I believe justly, that the application of fire is as little understood in agriculture as that of water . I found him ploughing and burning an old tough pasture. It is well known that in the common method of paring and burning, the slice or furrow is taken as thin as possible, from half an inch to an inch, or an inch and half; two inches are reckoned thick; but Mr. Wilkes contends that as much as possible should be burnt; and therefore ploughs 8 or 9 inches deep, and burns the whole furrow, the burners following the plough immediately without any drying; a cross ploughing given, for cutting the flags into pieces. It is however necessary to explain this, because in common situations it could not be done, the furrow would not burn without drying, and hardly with it; but this is all a coal country, spread with the shafts of pits working, or that have been exhausted; and there are every where heaps of what is called sleck , or coal rubbish, which burns tolerably well, after a heap has been kindled, with about half a peck, or a peck of common ordinary (not faleable) coal. With this important assistance of coal and sleck for every heap, the furrow burns well, as it falls from the plough: the heaps are made to the size of about 30 or 40 bushels in each; and the immensity of ashes may be conceived by the space between the heaps, not exceeding a yard and half, or two yards. The expence of burning is 1l. 5s. 8d. per acre; to which must be added two ploughings each, with 4 or 5 horses, and 2 men; also the coals and carriage of the sleck; perhaps the whole, with spreading, &c. may amount to 4l. an acre, and at that rate very cheaply done.

Indeed it is so great, that last year Mr. Wilkes from 17 acres burnt, manured 80, and yet left a sufficient plenty of ashes. By means of the advantage of coal and sleck he burns all the year. It must be apparent to every one, that such a method cannot be pursued in situations where fuel is not in equal plenty. But the hint may be useful in any situation, not to fear paring as deep as can be burnt. In conversation with Mr. Wilkes on that subject, I enquired into his opinions upon that question, and into the facts on which he founded those opinions. He is convinced from the experience of many years that burning, in any judicious method, for in stance in any heaps, not exceeding 50, 60, or 70 bushels, perhaps 100, does not waste the soil in the least, which is the common apprehension; that this partial calcination does no more than break the texture of stiff soils, by reducing all the vegetable particles to wood ashes (an excellent manure) and expelling a great quantity of water; that by exposition to the atmosphere, after the operation, the land reabsorbs its water, and by the great immediate fertility, fills itself presently with more vegetable particles than it had before. And he added, that whether this reasoning was or was not just, yet the facts he had observed were such as justified the conclusion. Above 30 years ago, his father burnt, at Overseal, exactly in this manner, a field of 10 acres, which was not then, and has not since been treated with any more favour than the fields adjoining, yet it has ever since retained a superiority; and in his own practice he has found the practice uniformly beneficial after several years. I must on this remark, that the safe way of acting in all such cases is to crop tenderly, and by that method insure the duration of the benefit; grass is every where the most important object, and rendered every day more and more important, by the repeated operations of government on the corn laws, tending to no other point than that of reducing the price: at the same time grass secures in the soil that degree of fertility you have given it, and even keeps it constantly increasing. The vast importance of laying to grass, is no where better understood than in this country, as well as the prodigious improvement it works, even in the corn crops. More than half Measham, Ibstock, &c. are laid to grass since the inclosure, and yet send more grain to market than ever they did before. At Heather, Oakthorn, and Appleby, more than double. Such are the astonishing improvements wrought by inclosing and converting to grass ! But in the new inclosures there is no such thing as a fallow, whereas all the open fields were fallowed.

In carriage, Mr. Wilkes is as singular, respecting his neighbours, as in any other circumstance; he uses Irish cars, on an improved construction, and one horse only, with which he finds that he can move earth, ashes, bricks, &c. much cheaper than by any other conveyance.14 One horse has, for months together, drawn in one of these cars15 160 bricks, each of 14lb. this is a ton. What tumbril or waggon used in such work ever did the same, provided 3 or 4 horses are harnessed in the same carriage?

In brick-making Mr. Wilkes has made a very great, and, since the tax, a very obvious improvement, which is considerably increasing the size; he makes them of various dimensions, for different purposes, some to 22 inches long, but all of double the size of common ones; with these bricks he builds his cotton-mills, steam engine, weaving shops, and his numerous houses and cottages;16 by means of which he is filling this country with industry and population. They are burnt in various forms; some of unequal breadths, for forming arches without mortar; other semi-circular, for placing together to form circular columns, &c. &c. One use of his arch bricks pleased me very much; in pits and stone quarries, or on the declivity of a hill, he makes cow-sheds and hog-sties, all of brick and arched at top, with brick standings and mangers, two cows being tied in each arch; above is the hay stack, and a brick stair-case down to a passage behind the mangers. The hog-sties in his farm-yard are equally well contrived; the servants walk from the dairy and the kitchen on a neat piece of grass plat, which extends over the hoggery, consisting of arched apartments, on which earth and turf are laid; hoppers are placed in tunnels that descend below to the troughs; and thus they are fed without going near them; the sties open into the farm-yard. In another range of sties by the corn-mill, arched also in the same manner, water is conducted through at will, to wash them clean, and then thrown over a meadow. This I cannot approve of, for the land which immediately receives it is over-manured; or if conveyed further it is too much diluted, and a great deal is lost. From 60 to 100 hogs, commonly kept here, would, in a yard well covered with marl or earth and constantly littered on, make manure enough for 50 or 60 acres of land, that would retain the benefit during 5 years, an object vastly beyond washing the sties over a meadow.

The great privilege and happiness of this country is its plenty of coal which is found every where. The colliers earn great wages, 2s. to 3s. 6d. a-day, besides their coal gratis, to the amount 3 cwt. a week in summer, and 4 cwt. in winter, except 4d. a week charged them for the carriage. Price of coal 3d. per cwt. and of the coarse surface coal 3s. a ton; which is burnt in the steam engines, and for other uses. The pits are drained by those engines, and the water brought from them Mr. Wilkes has, for experiment, thrown over some meadows; the benefit, in some instances, has been visible, but not tried long enough to be able to to be quite ascertained; it is strongly impregnated. This trial, though not decisive, may serve to shew that those who can get water need not be nicely solicitious as to its qualities.

With the immensity of Mr. Wilkes's business, in so many different pursuits, he is far from neglecting other braches of farming, besides that of irrigation. He is a member of the Leicestershire tup society, which have entered into articles of association with Mr. Bakewell, and with one another, for the better promotion of that amazing traffic in rams, which is here found a solid benefit, and elsewhere laughed at as a visionary romance: he has had one of Mr. Bakewell's high-priced rams; breeding with the same spirit, that he himself works cotton, opens coal pits, and waters meadows. In his arable management he is very spirited; and is, from attentive experience, an advocate for Mr. Cook's drill, having some very good crops put in with that instrument. In a word he sums up the pith and marrow of good husbandry in these four points, 1, water; 2, fire; 3, Bakewell's sheep; 4, Cook's drill.

The 8th. Mr.Wilkes accompanied us to Overseal, where his brother has an experiment that merits attention; a very fine piece of wheat drilled at 1 foot, after forward turnips, which were fed off and the land not ploughed at all, but only scuffled to prepare it for the wheat: returned by Ashby Wolds, a tract of land absolutely waste of 2500 to 3000 acres; much of it cold land, with many rushes; some of it hilly. Take our leave of this spirited improver, and passed to Odstone, where Mr. Astley was so obliging as to shew me his stock, particularly Lady Washington, a cow bought at the sale of the late Mr. Fowler, of Rollright, for 194l. 5s. and esteemed by many persons, before that sale, to be the finest cow in England. I took some of her dimensions, on account of the proportions , but by no means for size, as that is no merit, and a cow not worth 20l. may be much larger . From center of hip to hip, 2 feet; this is a most extraordinary breadth; it is a great space where the meat is most valuable. Width across the rump about 5 inches; below the spring of the tail 1 foot 2 inches; breadth of side 2 feet 4 inches; length from the centre of the shoulder 5 feet 2 inches; largest girt 8 feet 2 inches; ditto on the chine 7 feet. The proportions to be noted are the width from hip to hip, being so near that of the side, approaching to half the length, and th of the largest girt. Her colour is red, with a white-streaked back; it may not, perhaps, be useless to observe, that the finest cattle that are to be found in every breed in the kingdom are red, or varieties of that colour.

Mr. Astley shewed me at the same time a few of his sheep, in the manner which sheep are shewn in these breeding counties; that is to say, a few parcels, half a dozen in each, which are prepared sheep, in high order, and much fatter than any are to be found in many counties of this kingdom. Upon this subject of exhibition, I shall by and by make a few observations. Here we viewed some shear-hogs ; two shear-rams, wethers, &c. In feeling a few of the finest individuals (I should observe that Mr. Astley lets every year at considerable prices), I was desired to take notice of the knick ; this is an indenture along the vertebrae. If a Norfolk sheep is examined, the bone will always be found to rise ridge like; instead of this ridge the new Leicester sheep are now breeding to have a furrow there; which is called the knick; seeming, in this instance and various others, to be formed in a manner as contrary as possible to the Norfolk model; they are indeed so totally the reverse, that if Norfolk sheep are good, Leicester must be bad; and, vice versa , if Mr. Bakewell has exerted himself to raise a bad sheep, Norfolks must unquestionably be good ones. This knick should not take place over the chine, as in that case the flesh is apt to be too muscular; but right to be fat above the shoulder; not in the thigh, nor heavy there. In all this business of breeding, assertions are endless, and you look in vain for experiment. This point has been attained but very lately, but it is now considered of so much consequence, that a tup that does not possess it, will lower in his value on that account (all other points equal) some hundreds of pounds for his hire in a single season.

Mr. Astley is curious in his breed of pigs; I measured one 14 inches wide behind, and 16across the chine, and 3 feet long holding that breadth.

At night reached Mr.Knowles's at Nailstone.

The 9th. View Mr. Knowles's livestock. I particularly admired a three-year old bull, bought when a calf, in 1789,of Mr. Fowler, out of Young Nell, and got by Shakespeare.17 He is in general form beautiful, and feels perfectly to the satisfaction of the most skilful hand; breadth across from hip to hip, 1 foot 11 inches; across behind, below the setting on of the tail, 1 foot 3 inches; length 5 feet; girt 8 feet 1 inch; hind leg girt, at the smallest, 6inches; Mr.Knowles does not let this bull cover under 25 guineas a cow.

Another, a stirk bull, got by Garrick, from hip to hip 19 inches; and 12 wide behind. A four-year oldcow, 18 inches wide in the hip, and 12 behind. Another cow 20 inches in the hip.

Mr. Knowles's sheep are very beautiful; several of his tups have the knick, and that round fullness in the bosom, and fatness in the fore-flank, for which the Dishley stock are so justly famous. Mr. Knowles has 400 acres, and about 400 sheep, the wethers of which, at two years old, come to 26lb. a quarter. Land for five miles round Nailstone lets at about 20s. an acre.

This gentleman is a member of the new tup society; and as many of the articles in the Rollright sale were bought in by him and company, I desired, among other things, to see Brindled Beauty, the famous cow, got by Shakespeare, which sold for 273l. Mr. Bakewell, laughingly, told me she was in a coal pit; by which I was to understand that she was not to be seen, nor any person to know where she is. This gave rise to a little debate upon the propriety of that conduct; and how far it was really calculated to serve the cause .

On one hand it was urged, that if a breed of cattle was really superior to all others, and the owners of such breed were well persuaded of such superiority, it seemed to be manifestly for their interest to have the very best individuals examined; merit undoubted must be merit unquestioned and acknowledged; and the more clear and decisive the superiority, just so much greater the propriety of having it seen, and so much the more probable its efficacy to take place in rivalling other breeds.

In answer to this it was observed, that the merit of a breed cannot be supposed to depend on a few individuals of singular beauty: it is the larger number that must stamp their character on the whole mass ! if the breed, by means of that greater number, is not able to establish itself, most assuredly it cannot be established by a few specimens. To keep from common examination the few, may, therefore, be no more than justice to the many.

In reply ---- Such justice may be, in fact, a great injustice; for instance, we yesterday viewed Mr. Astley's cows; if we had not seen Lady Washington, I should not have been strongly impressed with any peculiar excellence in the breed. Seeing her, I must confess it rivals other breeds of which I have a very high opinion.

The instance you have named is pointedly against you in the argument. If Mr. Astley had not shewn Lady Washington, you might have thought well of his other stock; the moment you saw her, you held the rest (comparatively speaking) cheap: why then shew one cow that is to lessen 20 others in value 500l. to the eye?

For this reason, if there was no other, to avoid the appearance of mystery and concealment, which injures every cause.

If it is the pleasure of those gentlemen who wish to see our stock, to attribute to views of mystery the common precautions which we think necessary to our business, the fault is theirs, not ours.

But liberality demands -

Not so fast, Sir.-Who has a right to demand what you are pleased to call liberality? We are, like other men, engaged in a pursuit by which we hope to advance our own interests; if by liberality you mean public views, we consider ourselves as serving the public exactly in proportion as we serve ourselves. How can we serve ourselves so effectually as by pushing our breed to the highest degree of excellence possible? That also is the way to serve the public. But have you said one word to prove, that ten thousand people seeing Brindled Beauty would render the calf she produces an iota less valuable? To suppose that any circumstance of management would alter the real value, would be absurd; but what others may call the ideal value, is real to us.

But, Gentlemen, in no other part of the kingdom is there any of this secrecy, mystery, and what some persons call humbugging; why, therefore, should it be here?

If in other parts of the kingdom they have not been able, by a different conduct, to raise their bulls to the value of as many shillings as we have pounds, it ought to follow, that our conduct, call it what you will-humbugging, if you please- has been right, and their's has, so far as this argument goes, been wrong; and for this plain reason, that without high prices there is not an equal inducement to spirited exertions and unceasing attention. No men in the world will exert themselves equally to breed bulls that sell at 10l. as to breed those that let at 100l. Thus if humbugging raises the price, it gives, at the same time, merit to deserve it.

The conversation was spun to a greater length; but these touches of it will explain the steady and well reflected principles on which these breeders conduct themselves: and impartial men, who have not the husbandry of gentlemen in their heads, will confess that they are right. Gentlemen, educated in habits of liberality, are fond of disseminating what they think for the public good, and give away what others, in a different line, will sell as high as possible. A very little attention to the careless and inattentive manner in which these things are bred, or kept, or formed, or managed, that are given away, or, what is much the same, sold for low prices, must convince one, that such a conduct, however liberal, is not at all calculated to in sure excellence; and that nothing, among the mass of mankind, is ever highly valued, that is not measured by a HIGH PRICE. In most of the breeds of England, our of Leicestershire, the best animals are to be bought at little more than a beef or mutton price: in such a ratio , excellence is unattainable; and those measures, let them be ever so artificial, that tend to raise the prices, are the first and most essential towards improving the breed: without this, every effort will be vain;-and with it, none will be ineffective.

Mr. Elkington has been employed by Mr. Knowles, to drain the slope of a hill poisoned with springs; in every instance of his draining, I hear some new circumstance, to prove the sagacity and ingenuity of this useful operator, who may be termed an engineer of a new order. The crown of the hill above Mr. Knowles's wet fields is all dry, sound, gravelly land, in which no signs of springs, because pervious to water in its level; but when these springs came to the fields in question, which are clayey, they rise to the surface proportionably to the quantity of clay which impedes its progress; in this case, he found, by taking the levels, that springs on the other side of the hill in a clayey spot, at the distance of some hundred yards, were exactly on the same level as these passing under the gravel on the elevation, and thus breaking out where the passage was obstructed, by variation of soil. And he pronounced, that when this is the case, one surf, skilfully marked, will drain a variety of different and even far distant fields; and he recommends, in such cases, to wait, after the first drain is made, to let its operation ration take place, for six months, or even a twelve-month; in which time it will be found, how far the effect has taken place: if more are wanted, they can then be made. When springs are brought in this manner from a distance, there is no doubt but he brings more water to a place than flowed in it before. The great skill is to know where to bore. The surf, or trunk bricks which he uses, are 8s. a thousand more than common ones.

To Mr. Paget's, at Ibstock, another member of the tup society, whose stock, both bulls and tups, I had great pleasure in examining. He has a bull in particular, of the Rollright breed, that is of singular beauty. His sheep are in high form; in a word, he is one of the Bakewell family, that has, with great skill and exertion, assisted in pushing the common cause to that wonderful perfection to which it has arrived at present. At dinner, Mr. Paget had collected a numerous company of capital breeders to meet us; among others, Mr. Buckle of Normanton, who stands high in the tup society. The conversation was entirely upon breeding, and on the best methods of promoting the good cause. The propriety was urged of taking some steps, more than had hitherto been taken, to introduce the breed of the new Leicestershire sheep into those counties where they had not yet been able to establish themselves; and among other methods, that of lending rams gratis, and selling a few good ewes at high prices, provided persons could be found who were willing to buy them. It was with pleasure I found, that to give the use of tups to a few persons possessing flocks in those counties, in which the Leicester breed was not establishing itself, under the condition, however (a very reasonable one), of their making a fair comparative experiment, was very generally the sense of the company; in regard to selling ewes, there was a difference of opinion; some of the gentlemen present thought that it would be a right measure, others had a contrary notion.

In its favour it was urged, that the breed could make its way only by being known, and the higher the perfection in which it was examined by its opponents, so much the more likely would it be to make its way. By only letting rams, which are of course put to ewes better calculated to raise bad than a good stock, the time must be very far distant before such a sort would be had in those counties, as should strike the eye of every unprejudiced ohserver. Whereas this time might be much accelerated, if those who hired rams could also buy some culled ewes; and the moment consequently would sooner arrive when such counties, at present rejecting the breed, would be brought to admit its superiority.

In answer to this it was contended, that the Leicestershire breeders, who had associated themselves into a company, having for the chief basis of that association the superiority of their stock, could scarcely wish themselves in a better train than at present. Their tups going every year into fresh districts, the demand increasing, and prices rising rapid y: that in such a situation they ought to be content, and by no means urge or push a market, whose natural progress is so favourable, that the breed being unquestionably superior to all others yet known, must inevitably make its way, sooner or later; on merit alone, therefore, they ought to rely, and not venture on so dangerous a method as that of parting with ewes, the greater merit of which, while the best rams are let, is the only security of retaining that superiority of which they are in possession at present.

On the other hand, it was answered, that being content with their present situation, while a better was attainable, with more exertion, was not a principle well calculated to command the greatest possible success. Supposing tups now let at a thousand guineas, could any reason be produced why they should not rise to five and even ten times as much? The time was lately, when an hundred for the hire of one was thought as extravagant, and as much beyond the reach of common ideas, as the largest sum could be deemed at present. What has raised the price so greatly, but the competition of three or four counties? Why then if the competition of three or four counties has had this effect should not the competition of 30 or 40 counties carry the stock to that height, which every one knows can only be attained by the most extensive competition; consequently the sooner you establish yourselves in new districts, the sooner that day will arrive. That in regard to the danger of parting with ewes, the apprehension seemed absolutely imaginary; they were the masters what ewes they would part with; and it was certainly in their power to sell culls , which would have great effect in pushing forward their friends in other countries, without the least danger of being rivalled, retaining, as they certainly would retain, ewes so much superior to those they sold.

To this it was, on the other side replied, that if the breed could establish itself only by means of selling ewes, the question would at once be decided; ewes certainly ought to be sold; but when it is considered, that by hiring rams every year you presently banish almost the whole of the ancient blood, which is done nearly in five years; for calling the whole blood (the ram) 100; and the no blood (the ewe) nothing; you have 50 the 2d year; 75 the 3d year; 87 the 4th; and 98 the 4th: thus in five years your ewes are deficient only 1 per cent. and facts well known justify the calculation. Thus Mr. Culley of Northumberland, merely by hiring rams, is now in possession of some very valuable ewes, which give him the lead in the North; and Leicester at present reaps the advantage, for two gentlemen from that county, instigated by Mr. Culley's success, have come up this year; a case in point, and which proves that the business goes on in the right train, without selling ewes.

On the other hand, it was contended, that the instance now given of Mr. Culley, so far from proving the strength of that argument into whose service it has been pressed, proves in fact directly against it. Mr. Culley has been a dealer for rams in Leicestershire above 20 years, so long has it taken him to establish his breed so well in Northumberland, that it is to say, to form good ewes (for rams in the hiring system are always at command), that it is only this year that others have been induced to come to the Leicester shop. Hence we may, from this remarkable fact, draw one clear conclusion, that a rivalship and competition are not to be expected at a distance, but by means of good ewes.?While Mr. Culley had only good rams none of his neighbours were induced to come to the spring-head; but as soon as he gets good ewes the superiority of the breed is established, and that competition arises in a distant county, which brings the Leicester breeders into play there. What is the evident conclusion? Clearly, that these 20 years might be considerably shortened, by establishing one or two breeders in every county, well at first, by selling some culled ewes, as well as letting tups: by this means the breed would sooner gain ground, and Leicestetshire would the earlier reap the benefit.

The argument ended, as arguments usually do.- neither party convinced; but much was said on both sides worthy of attention. My own opinion was, on this occasion, as on all others, to spread good things at a good price.

In the evening accompanied Messrs. Bakewell and Honeyborn to Dishley.

The 10th and 11th. Employed highly to my gratification among the celebrated live stock of this Prince of Breeders; in viewing once more his operations of watering, which he shewed me himself; and in examining, with Mr. Honeyborn,18 his arable management, Mr. Bakewell leaving that branch of the business entirely to him.

The principal feature of the arable management is, the winter provision for cattle, in which cabbages make the chief figure; Mr. Bakewell was always a considerable cultivator of this plant, and Mr. Honeyborn continues to pay equal attention to it. He has got the best stock I have seen, and raises some quantity of seed, having been so often and repeatedly applied to for it, that he was either obliged to give this attention and expence, or refuse more applications than he wished: however, to pay himself in some measure for this application of time and attention to an object to which he does not wish to give it, farther than for his own use, he sells the feed at 24s. a lb.; I was glad to hear of this, being well persuaded that it is the only circumstance which can give any probability of this estimable cabbage, being valued sufficiently to be preserved. Every day I am more convinced that the world pays attention to nothing so much as price . If Mr. Bakewell gave away those tups, which he lets, as the world says, for 1000 guineas, what would be the consequence? No other than a mutton value would be fixed upon them, and he would scarcely be cold in his grave before the breed would be absolutely lost for want of care; but by fixing an immense price upon them, they are solicitously and anxiously attended to, and will, by the progress of improvement, owing wholly and absolutely to price, be carried to a perfection of which perhaps we have at present few ideas. It is the same with feeds, with tools, with every thing that ought to be valued-not given away, but sold as high as possible. Whatever the thing is, it will then be regarded, and more good will result from one person that so buys, than from an hundred to whom given. These observations, of course, are not applicable to transactions among the higher classes of life; but this remark rather confirms the doctrine; in those classes things of this sort are given away; but not race-horses ; and note-for it deserves attention,-that there is nothing else amongst those classes managed with so much skill, or carried to such perfection.

Mr. Bakewell's crops of cabbage are very great; estimated at 40 tons an acre: most I saw on his farm were, for so dry a year, very promising, and some pieces remarkably fine; the largest, by far, are those sown about the 12th of August, pricked out at Old Michaelmas and transplanted, to remain from the middle of February to the middle of June; the spring sown plants were none of them equal to these, nor will arrive at half the size. But here is a new method followed, which, if mere size of cabbage for forward use is the object, seems to exceed all others; this is to transplant the August sown plants at Michaelmas, directly where they are to remain. Mr. Honeyborn has a field this year managed thus; it promises to be of use for a few acres, but would not do by way of a system, for but little land can be fit at that season for plants: it would do well on a piece of tare land, dunged and ploughed ready for the purpose, but in such a case the cabbages, a fallow crop, are substituted instead of wheat; whereas in the more common methods they prepare for corn; the objection, however, when a few acres only are in question, is nothing. Carrots also are cultivated at Dishley with success, even to thirty tons an acre, here are this year 12 acres, and 20 of cabbage.

Mr. Bakewell and Mr. Honeyborn are both steady friends to Mr. Cooke's drill; have many acres drilled with it, and the crops are good?they think them superior to others upon the same land broadcast, both good; his drilled wheat I think the best; I have doubt as to the barley. His turnips are also drilled, and his management of a field this year capital; it was under winter tares drilled, which were fed to the middle of May, then part was ploughed for turnips, and part only scuffled, and both drilled at 18 inches: I viewed them, and think the turnips rather better after the scuffle than after the plough, and the land in equal order: this is a great object, for there is no comparison between the expence of scuffling and ploughing; from various observations made in different parts of the kingdom, combined with experiments on my own farm, I am inclined to believe that a great deal too much ploughing is given to land, and that many operations would much exceed it in killing weeds. Mr. Honeyborn's scuffle is on Mr. Ducket's plan, but improved by setting the shares springing forward in an angle of 45 degrees; and made much stronger than Mr. Ducket's. On a third and small part of the same field the tares are now standing, or a crop of seed, after being spring fed, and are well podded.

Another remarkable experiment in scuffling was for barley after turnips carted off: the land was ploughed late in autumn, and in the spring part of the field only scuffled, and part of it ploughed for barley; the crop better after the scuffling than after the ploughing.

I have, on two19 former occasions, given an account of the irrigation of Dishley: it is, however, performed with such intelligence, and executed on such sure principles, that no person wishing to be a master of the subject can study it too much. Those who have been accustomed to examine watered meadows, know that the greatest difficulty is in watering lands level, or nearly to: to give a necessary motion to the water; and especially to spread a small quantity over a given space of land, is a difficult business. In one of Mr. Bakewell's meadows, this is executed with great fertility of invention, and with the happiest success, by directing the progress of the water diagonally across the field; by which means, in the meadow in question, a better fall is gained, and consequently the water is in quicker motion than if it was allowed to spread more directly from float to drain.

In regard to the quality of the water used, Mr. Bakewell unites in opinion entirely with Mr. Wilkes, that it is a question of the least possible Consequence-a man must use such water as he has; and this he may do with confidence ninety-nine times in an hundred, for he knows of no instance in which any sort of water, judiciously used, has been prejudicial; and if Mr. Wilkes has been able to use the strongly impregnated draining of his coal pits to any advantage, we can hardly doubt the truth of the doctrine. Gypsum proving highly beneficial as a manure, must silence all nice enquiries into the quality of waters;-whatever you have got, that use.

Since I was before at Dishley, Mr. Bakewell has made a considerable improvement in his sluice-gates; he had them formerly, as in common, in one piece, formed of several boards-but they were apt, by warping, to be difficult to draw, and out of order; he now has every board distinct, to let down one on the other, so that a boy can draw up or let down, and just for that quantity of water wanted.

Mr. Bakewell has this year an experiment on the effect of watering preparatory to tillage, which deserves noting. He watered a piece of ray-grass for two years, except a corner of the field which had no water. This year he ploughed it for oats, the crop remarkably fine (not less than eight or nine quarters an acre) except on the corner not watered, where the crop was very inferior; the result is remarkable, and proves clearly that watering, while under grass, acted as a very powerful manure.

Water-mills are, of all other things, the greatest impediment to irrigation, insomuch that I have heard a person in this country jocularly say, he would never paint the devil in any other colour than white; a miller being, of all other animals, that which does most mischief to the farmer. Before, however, the Dishley mill was in other hands, Mr. Bakewell contrived to make use of every drop of water possible: he made a wear in the mill-dam, to take the water off when the miller wanted to draw up the gates, which suited both parties; he had the use of the water, and the mill-tail was kept lower than it would otherwise have been. This thought might be executed at any mill.

Upon lands level, or nearly so, which are much the most difficult to water, Mr. Bakewell is much inclined to think the best, and certainly the safest way is by ridge and furrow; in which method he has much done. The lands are ploughed by gathering towards the desired form and about 11 yards wide; then with a most simple and ingenious tool he sinks the furrows and raises the crowns of the ridges, and finishes the levelling with great exactness. This machine is made like a wheelbarrow, held by a man and drawn by one horse; it has no bottom, only edges; the hinder of which only rests on the ground; it is armed with iron, and scrapes the land along, till over the spot where wanted, then the man lifts up the tool, and drops the earth, which is driven along, not carried, as in some tools more complex. When the ridge is formed, the floating trench is cut along the crown, and the drain in the furrow; the water has just the degree of motion desired, for its velocity will be exactly proportioned to the declivity given to the ridge. I have seen many meadows watered thus in Berkshire.

Before I quit the subject of irrigation, I should mention a very ingenious machine for raising water, invented by Mr. Chatterton, watchmaker, at Derby, a model of which I saw at Mr. Bakewell's. It is a wheel turned by the stream, the water of which is taken up by four pumps, worked by an alternate motion, given by the rotatory one of the wheel, so that two of the pumps are always at work. I wrote to Mr. Chatterton to desire to know the power and the expence; he was so obliging as to inform me, that it raises nine hogsheads per minute nine feet above the river, with three feet fall on the wheel; expence, 130 guineas for the machine, free from digging, or any build. ing that might be chosen over it. Suppose the annual charge, by interest of money and repairs, to be 20l. a year, which is the utmost, and that it works 10 months in a year; the expence of raising the water six feet (three are at command, without expence) is 200 hogsheads for a farthing. It must be obvious that gaining six feet in the levels of an undertaking of this sort may enable the irrigator to throw water over a great additional extent of land, in case the slopes of the country are gentle, or tending to a flat. It is very easy by taking the levels to discover how many acres six feet will give the command of, and to calculate to exactness the profit for watering on an average of all sorts of land, may be reckoned an addition of twenty shillings an acre.

But the great object at Dishley is LIVE STOCK. I have in other papers dwelt so much on the sheep, that it would be tedious to enter into particulars anew; in order to avoid mentioning what has already been noted, I shall confine myself at present to some circumstances in the tup business, new in it, having arisen since I was here before.

The first is the establishment of what I have mentioned more than once, a tup company , of which Mr. Bakewell was the projector, and may be called the head: sixteen of the principal breeders (I did not understand that any very capital ones are left out), among whom are Messrs. Wilkes, Paget, Buckle, Knowles, &c. have formed themselves into a society, for generally promoting the spirit of breeding, and for submitting mutually to certain rules for the better conduct of the business. In what I am going to add concerning this body, I must speak without direct authority; for, upon the subject of high prices, and other points, the most interesting, the members speak with remarkable caution: however, the enquiry is too generally interesting to the farming world to suffer me to be idle. I made enquiries of those who had not equal motives for silence, and I was assured of the following facts:

That the first day this society assembled, they offered Mr. Bakewell an annuity for life, secured on all their joint properties, of FIVE AND TWENTY HUNDRED GUINEAS A YEAR for his five best rams annually; and that Mr. Bakewell refused this offer.

That Mr. Bakewell let three rams this year (1791) for THREE THOUSAND GUINEAS.

And, in confirmation of this, I was told, on very good authority, in Northamptonshire, that eighty ewes were covered by a ram of Mr. Bakewell's, at ten guineas each, or eight hundred guineas; and as one hundred are the common number for a tup, this is in the ratio of one thousand guineas per ram.

That a breeder, a member of the society, in 1790, let a ram for five hundred guineas, got by one he hired of Mr. B.20

That, by the rules of this tup society. Mr. Bakewell is obliged to give the members the choice of his rams; and bound from letting any under 50 guineas; the rest of the members under 10 guineas.

That, by the same rules, all fixing prices is precluded. The tup master does not ask a price, the hirer bids .

There are many other rules unknown, and a general agreement to advance money in a certain ratio, for any expences or projects of common benefit. It is said, that they laid out a thousand guineas at Mr. Fowler's sale; and that the articles bought in the name of Messrs. Knowles and company were on their account.

The establishment of such a society, and the principles on which they conduct themselves, are interesting subjects that deserve consideration. I have heard it represented as a knot of monopolists, associated to humbug the public. That if the stock, cows, and sheep are as good as they are pretended, they stand in need of no associations but will make their own way well without them; that all monopolies are bad and that this society is plainly one; that raising the price of rams to such an enormous, preposterous, and incredible height was always thought a matter of deception; but the establishment of a society for the mere purpose of raising prices, will yield an additional conviction that no other end is in aim; that the object of breeding sheep is to produce mutton , wool , and fold ; that the mutton of this breed is confessedly not better than other mutton, of which the price21 is a proof; and if a butcher is to be the judge (and who so proper?) not so good , as he will look to them for his tallow loaf in vain; that the wool sells at 20s. a tod, while other sorts of English wool sells at 45s.; and that as to the sold, they are certainly of all other breeds the most improper; hence the absurdity of giving 10 guineas for getting a lamb, intrinsically not better than other lambs; that getting lambs to make wethers for the butcher is the object they must come to at last, by whatever arts the journey may be impeded. Such arguments I have often heard;-something may certainly be said on the other side.

No man that is a judge will deny, or question for a single moment, that this breed of sheep, whether intrinsically good or bad, has been improved more than any other in the kingdom. I have conversed with Norfolk, Sussex, Dorset, and Wilts flock masters, but I never heard any of them pretend that any very great improvements have been made in the last ten years, one or two men in a county excepted; and not every where even one. If then there has been a greater improvement made in this breed than in others, it follows, in all fairness of reasoning, that those maxims, those principles, and that conduct, whatever they may be, which have had this effect, have been more successful, and ought ceteris paribus to be acknowledged better and founder than those principles and maxims which have been applied to the other breeds of the kingdom. It must be confessed, that this is a fair induction from the premises, without begging any question in favour of this breed, or even supposing it to be intrinsically better than others. All now contended for is, that it has been more improved; after all its amelioration, it may be inferior to whatever breeds you please, but it must be granted that the mode of advancement has been more successful.

Now what has that mode consisted in? In one great leading point-In RAISING THE VALUE, and thereby animating the spirit of exertion. There are other inferior and secondary maxims, such as not selling but letting-not crossing but breeding in and in, &c.- but the vital principle has been a great MONEY VALUE.

If this is admitted, and that it must be admitted every one acquainted with the subject will confess at the first blush, it is next to be asked how has this been effected in Leicestershire? and why has it failed in other breeds?

I believe five guineas was the highest price a ram ever sold for in the Norfolk breed. From one to two guineas the common price, and they do not fell at one penny more at present than 10 years, perhaps 20 years ago.

Until very lately five guineas was the highest price in the South Down breed; but through the cxertions, new in that country, of Mr. Ellman, Miss Hayes, and Lord Sheffield, improvements have lately been made, and they begin now to hear of ten guines.

In Dorset and Wilts rams have been sold at about the same prices as in Sussex. I have obscurely heard even of 20 guineas being given for a Wiltshire ram, but the fact was not authenticated.22

It is remarkable, that in these counties, which are each in possession of distinct and much vaunted breeds. rams have not been let ; they are sold, and at such low prices, that 20 guineas must every where be considered as the highest heard of. It surely deserves noting, that these breeds have been either very little, or not all, improved at low prices , while that of Leicester has been prodigiously improved at very high ones .

It is not that these breeds are incapable of improvement, they are all greatly capable of it, even on the ideas that respectively govern those countries. If a black face, and a black long leg, and a thick long horn, many times curled, are admitted excellencies in Norfolk, why not breed the faces still blacker, and the horns yet longer? If naked bellies, white faces, and horns falling back behind the cars are objects in Wiltshire, why not breed for those excellencies, so as to command them to more perfection? If rough heads and horns, sticking out from the head, be the marks of merit in Dorsetshire, why not carry such points further than any one has done yet? And if a patch in a speckled face is a criterion in Sussex, surely a brighter speckle and a thicker patch might be bred?

Now is it not a marvellous system, that amidst all this attention to these points, so utterly non-essential, or rather so ridiculous, these whites, blacks, speckles, horns, and patches-that THE CARCASS should every where seem to be out of all contemplation, except in Leicestershire? It surely is fortunate that men should arise, who rejecting all these fooleries as nothing, have paid attention to the carcass alone !

But supposing Leicester wrong, and all the rest right, then comes the question pointed and apposite; why have not you made as great improvements in your horns, your legs, and your faces, as Leicester has in the barrel? Leicester has not stood still a moment, but most of you have been stationary these 20 years. Why? Because you have not been pushed forward by high prices. If men could have been found to buy horns at 10l. an inch, or colour at 20l. a shade, is it to be supposed they could not have been bred? thus have these flock-masters, wanted the right instigation to produce the points which they themselves consider as excellencies.

The reader, it is hoped, will do the justice to my argument to allow that it does not at all depend on which of the several breeds is the best; the chain of reasoning I wish to impress, is equally fair, whether all the fat of a sheep should be gathered into the intestines, or whether it should be spread on the back and ribs; the object being merely to prove that high prices are essential to improvement , whether you breed for head, horn, or loin.

It now comes to be enquired, what are the means to attain high prices? If we rely, as we ought to do, on practice and experience, rather than on supposition and theory, we must answer at once- certainly NOT those which have failed in so many counties; but, on the contrary, THOSE which have succeeded so greatly in Leicestershire. The debate seems to be at an end; the argument, or rather the fact, is decisive; the common conduct keeps rams at five guineas, a different one raises them to 500. How futile then to talk of imposition, of monopolies, and of humbugging. As raising the price ensures improvement, monopolies and humbugs are merit, if attended with this effect. Are the morals of the other counties so delicate that they would not fell a black face, or a long horn for an hundred pounds, if any one could be found to give it, lest they should be accused of a humbug?

I speak of imposition and monopoly lightly, because the accusation ought to be taken as more laughable than serious. If men associated in order to deceive; if they formed societies to support error, and laid down regulations to give freer currency to falshood, the charge would be heavy indeed. But the supposition would be idle, because the object would be impossible to attain, the end of their association is clearly monopoly; but it is a monopoly honourable to those who can fix it; it is a monopoly of excellence; an attempt to secure the reward of merit. They have not a single assistance, not an atom of support, which the possessors of every other breed in England have not equally at command. Long, continued, and unwearied application have given them a superiority due to such efforts; if they associate to reap the benefit, by raising prices, let it be remembered that price is sale, and sale dissemination; the profit they receive arises from spreading what they conceive perfection.-a monopoly of a complexion not common.

If these great outlines are supportable, the inferior touches are not of much account. Of what consequence rams being sold , provided all are to be hired? What objection to letting them in the most common of all methods of sale, that by auction? Does the owner or the auctioneer fix the prices of the goods, or the purchaser? If it is said that the auction of tups is not public, it no more than puts them on a par with the farms of half Ireland, and some parts of England, where landlords advertise to receive written proposals.

I cannot see any particular advantage in one mode of selling, over another; but as to there being any thing unfair, in either method, it is idle to assert it.

The way of shewing stock, not permitting store23 sheep to be seen, and various other regulations are all matters of choice to the owner; he has an undoubted right to arrange all these circumstances just as he pleases, and if 15 other men agree to do the same; their right, by association, is not at all lessened.

All these questions turn but on one point; do they tend to raise prices? If they do, they are right and laudable; for it is already sufficiently proved that price and improvement go hand in hand. And can any one be surprised that more care and attention should be paid to breeding animals that let at 500 and 1000 guineas, than to such as are sold for five? What application of time, talents, and assiduity can be so profitable in agriculture, as that which is bestowed on examining stock of all kinds, with the most critical eye; making journeys into every part of the kingdom to discover individuals that may answer particular purposes; by a happy selection and union of different qualities, to produce more perfect forms, and more beneficial habits: how is this to be done for low prices? Where is the man to be found that will say it ought not to be done, or that to do it is useless? How then, with the smallest degree of consistency, can any one find fault with prices that do instigate to such exertions, or with plans of any kind that tend to establish such prices? There is another consideration, that should convince every one of the unquestionable improvements which must, in the nature of things, result from the height to which the spirit of breeding has attained in the central counties. Mr. Bakewell is admitted, on all hands, to have the lead; he lets at higher prices than any one else, and all agree that hitherto none has been able to rival him successfully. Can any one suppose that his disciples do not try? It is for this purpose, and for that of exceeding one another, that there is an unrivalled competition among them: every experiment tried, every effort made; every nerve exerted. The lead cannot be estimated at less than a superiority of profit of 3000l. a year; an object worth contending for; and a contention that cannot exist in activity, without great and incessant improvements being the consequence. It would be an affront to the reader's understanding, to remark that the PUBLIC GOOD is something concerned in this ?to name it is sufficient-the conclusions are obvious.

Though I have sedulously avoided entering into the question of the merit of this breed, wishing to adapt my reasoning to all breeds equally, yet one circumstance in the new Leicester sheep obliges me to mention a point, not so much for the sake of any merit, as for an observation I wish to impress. The fat of this breed is spread on the back and ribs externally; but the butchers, it is contended in Norfolk, and at Smithfield, like better to have it gathered in the intestines.

The question that arises here is simply this, are butchers the masters or the servants of the grazier and the consumer? The interest of both these classes is correctly the same. The grazier wishes to produce mutton at 5d. per lb. rather than tallow at 3d. for most assuredly his grass is better employed to form the one than the other. The consumer, who thinks 5d. per lb. a high price, must desire to have more mutton brought to market, and less tallow; these classes are surely the public , though a tallow-chandler did not exist. But what pretension has the butcher, a mere go-between, to demand the mastery of both parties? He employs a given capital in his business, and will be paid a fair interest on that capital; what to him, whether by mutton or by tallow? The grazier produces what suits the consumer, would it not be a most extraordinary language to hear a butcher step in between them and say, No, Mr. Grazier, you shall not produce what the consumer likes, but what I like; instead of my having my profit on the mutton, I chuse to have it on tallow, and therefore you shall breed for head and horns, and pelt and tallow; for any thing rather than for mutton . Extraordinary as this might found, yet it is the real fact. Hence let it be laid down as a maxim, that whatever breed may be on the carpet, whatever may be the discussion, no truth or common sense can result if the opinion of the butcher is not thrown absolutely out of the question. The public good to a magnitude of immense importance is in question; the breeder, grazier, landlord, and consumer, in a word, all the interest of all the classes of England, except of the butcher's, and not his interest, but his whim to be paid in one shape rather than in another;-can it be, for a moment, a question, who in this case is to give way?

This leading point must be disposed of, before any breed can be examined-if you are to breed not for consumers, but for butchers,-if flesh and fat are not the objects, but horns and bones, 24 pelts and tallow, then, in the name of common sense, dismiss equally Leicesters, South Downs, and Rylands, and let the black-faced Norfolk, and the white-faced Wiltshires, pervade this kingdom.25

After having expatiated so much on the high prices at which rams of this breed are let, I ought to remark that there yet remains an immense field of improvement, by interesting experiment, open for the curious in this branch of rural ?conomy; that this is really the case will not be doubted, when it is considered in how many points all the better breeds of sheep are deficient; let us rapidly examine those most worthy of attention.

  1. The new Leicester. Wool that sells only at 9d. per lb.; mutton inferior in flavour; and an incapacity of supporting the work of hard folding.
  2. South Down. Carcass inferior in form to the new Leicester; wool inferior to the Hereford; and much inferior to the Spanish.
  3. Hereford. So tender that they will not bear folding; wool inferior to the Spanish; and carcass inferior to the Leicester.
  4. Spanish. Carcass ill formed and much offal, from weight in parts that ought to be light.

These defects point out the breed yet wanting, and which should possess

  1. Good mutton.
  2. Fine wool.
  3. Activity and hardiness for the fold.
  4. Well formed carcass, and disposition to thrive.

It will be thought clear by many that such a sort of sheep has not yet been formed. It would certainly be very idle to say that such a sheep cannot be bred.

I do not, however, conceive it possible to form such an animal?without the assistance of all those four breeds ?but I venture this as a conjecture, it is an experiment that merits great attention. If ever it is successfully made, it will be owing, not inconsiderably, to the unwearied attention, and fortunate event of Mr. Bakewell's exertions, who has so instigated mankind in this useful path, that unthought of discoveries may be the consequence.

I shall not take my leave of this most celebrated breeding district without making an observation, which, however it may be taken in Leicestershire, impartiality demands; it is that the meritorious and unrivalled exertions made in this county have been in my opinion, beyond all comparison, more successful in sheep than they have been in cattle. Compare the carcass of one of their rams or ewes, or wethers with that of any other breed in the island; and you will find a superiority in form and fatness, and quantity of food eaten, proportioned to the live weight, that will leave very little doubt in the mind of any unprejudiced person; but examine a bull or a cow of their breed, and you meet with very little conviction of superiority over several others. In quality of flesh, in disposition to fatten generally , and in smallness of offal, the Sussex and Devonshires, are equal to them. In soft mellowness of handling; in thinness of skin, and smallness of bone, those breeds exceed them; for though I have handled some individuals that have felt remarkably well on the rump and hip, yet I have touched several others, of very high price, that have handled less to my mind than many Sussex have done. In quantity of milk, the Suffolk beat them out and out. In nimbleness of step, and ease of motion, for work, Sussex has far the advantage, being at the same time of a size (not the case of the Devonshires) to draw great loads. In the article of quantity of food consumed by a given weight of beef, there are no experiments offered to one's consideration, which is not the case with their sheep, which have been carried through some very interesting trials of this sort, and much to their advantage.26 In killing them also, and comparing the proportion of offal, the sheep have been remarkable for their merit; but not a whit of such trials have been made with oxen of this breed. Such, and various other points, remain to be ascertained, and highly merit the enquiry; when such experiments are made, the result may occasion a different opinion; but till such decision is given by fact, we must hazard our reasoning on mere observation, though so often falacious. Of the great black breed of horses I say nothing; if a great size and weight are wanting, oxen ought to supply their place; if lighter cattle will answer, there are many sorts preferable in my opinion to this; but experiment only can decide. Through the medium of what breed, will a given weight of hay and oats move a given weight of load?

Measure of a stallion:?Shoulder-points, 1 foot 10 inches: length of back, 2 feet 3 inches; thickness through, 2 feet 3 inches; thick before, at shoulder-points, 1 foot 11 inches; thick in the haunches, 2 feet; girt, 7 feet; girt of his fore leg, 10 inches.

Bull Genealogy

It is to be regretted that Mr. Bakewell should have had the whim of letters instead of names ; it leads to nothing but confusion; you soon get to a printer,s alphabet, G g, H h; and if others were to do the same, names must be added Bakewell's K, Paget's B, &c.

In the evening of the 11th, to Loughborough, where I viewed the paintings of live stock, by a very ingenious and able artist, Mr. Boltby; among them, the famous bull Garrick, and the cow Brindled Beauty.

Very few inclosures have answered better than that of Loughborough, in which the common rights, which, before the inclosing, sold at 10l. each, arose to 50l. and since even to 70l.; and the land that was at 7s. is now at 40s. Yet great as this is, it does not equal an instance, I heard the other day in company, of Welby, near Sleaford, where heath-land, that let at 10d. an acre, rose on the inclosure to 10s and 12s.

Slept at Leicester, a place thriving very rapidly, and much improved since I was here before. The stocking-manufacture is in such demand, that they cannot get hands to answer it; a man with an engine, earning from 20s. to 30s. a-week.

The 12th, to Uppingham, twenty miles; the first ten mostly rich grass-land, inclosed, and let at 20s. an acre, mostly ridge and furrow.?From Blisden to Uppingham, ten miles; rich pasture for near half the way, but then declines, is more hilly, some rough, and much arable. Three or four miles before Uppingham, there is a high and most dangerous causeway, to exemplify Messrs. Wilkes and Bakewell's ideas of road making, and near it a hill, where the road is flat and rather concave; there good and safe; not the only place in which I have found their theory strongly proved. ?About Uppingham, average rent 20s.; some 30s. Graze many west country cows; used formerly to buy Irish; but have left them off, from finding them not equally profitable.-To Wandesford, fourteen miles, arable, much inferior, some open: rent 10s. or 12s.

Slept at Wandesford: country declining in value greatly.

The 13th. To Peterborough, crossing an open field, but sown by agreement with turnips, which are fine and well hoed. The soil a good gravel at 15s. Great common meadows on the river.

Peterborough is much improved by parliamentary pavement, made since I was here before.

To Chattris 20 miles, the chief of it a fen country, but drained; some noble crops of oats, not less than a last an acre, on cool bottoms; also good wheat; great distress through all the country for want of water, some cattle driven away on that account; land lets from 5s. to 30s. an acre. At Chattris there is much gravel. They have a great common divided and ploughed, and much let at 30 to 35s. an acre. Course, 1, pare and burn and sow cole-seed for sheep; 2, oats; 3, oats; 4, oats; or one crop of wheat and two of oats; a last an acre of this grain not uncommon, and of such as sell at 9l. a last. Water more wanted than any thing else; and the new Lynn cut will sink them four feet. All the way from Peterborough the fish are dead in the canals for want of water.

A thousand of turf, which sell at Chattris for 7s. reckoned equal to a chaldron of coals. Reach Ely in the evening, through a district of dry arable 20s. an acre.

The 14th. Return to Bradfield, by Fordham, Soham, Freckenham (much good land at 15s.), and Cavenham, &c. before travelled and minuted.


9 Thus Dr. Johnson, on being told that a man rode three horses at once,- "Such a man, Sir, should be encouraged: for his performances shew the extent of the human powers in one in. stance, and thus tend to raise our opinion of the faculties of man; he shews what may be attained by persevering application; so that every man may hope that by giving as much application. although perhaps he may never ride three horses at a time, or dance upon a wire, yet he may be equally as expert in whatever profession he has chosen to pursue." -- Boswell, vol. 1. p. 215.

10 They are not, however, quite so cheap as at Manchester.

11 Only half the nominal price of that place.

12 I did not see this executed, but that it might be is obvious.

13 It will be sufficiently obvious that the advantage will be in proportion to the poverty of the land: on very poor soils the water forms almost the whole value, and the profit of course is vastly greater; but the estimate was made for lands already of consider. able value; it supposes a man in possession of the land, and his neighbour offers to sell him the stream, it is worth 50l. a-year, besides the expence of preparing and floating the land.

14 I have myself carried this practice much farther than any person I have met with out of Ireland, for I use nothing but one-horse carts for every purpose; for hay and corn in harvest, as well as for dung, earth, &c.

15 They are about 5 feet square, and 1 deep; the wheels 2 feet diameter, and under the car, as in Ireland.

16 These cost 25l. and are let at 30s. a year: which answers both to the landlord and tenant. A comfortable well-built brick cottage for 30s. which is 50 per cent. less than in Suffolk, &c. for a clay hovel; coals for almost nothing, instead of roaming to break hedges; and constant employment at high wages by cotton, instead of starving by spinning wool;--What an enormous contrast I and how much do these eastern counties want the superintending energy of active statesmen? How much do they want something more than idle and expensive amusements?-viz. canals -cotton-mills,-irrigation.-&c. &c. &c.

17 For an account of Shakespeare, see Mr. Marshal's Rural OEconomy of the Midland Counties. Vol. 1 p.323. Young Nell sold at Mr. Fowler's sale for 126l.

18 Mr. Bakewell's nephew.

19 Eastern Tour; and Annals, vol. vi. p. 452.

20 Such circumstances at once explain the motive for giving such high prices; and they explain also the incomparable spirit of breeding in these counties, in which the disciples are able to tread so closely on the heels of their master, and yet are confessedly utterly unable to pass him. on this subject, Mr. Bakewell himself says, " they every year rise a peg, and their pegs would soon be higher than mine if I stood still; but we must contrive, that my peg moves as well as theirs;" as they have the same rams, this must be chiefly by Mr. B. having the best ewes. An obvious method is, to reserve every year privately the best ram for himself; this, however, is not suspected: and the frequent absences of Mr. B. from his farm, would, notwithstanding all precautions, render it ver y difficult to effect in secret.

21 Five.pence per lb.

22 The spirit of breeding and letting began in Lincolnshire; I have not yet, which I hope soon to do, examined that county with sufficient attention. I do not name it in this passage because I do not wish to speak of it at second-hand.

23 The reason given for not permitting lean sheep to be seen is that, the better the breed, the worse store sheep will look, they have very small bones and very little flesh; but in bad breeds, there are large bones, and much coarse flesh; and it is on this account that no breeder can tell what a sheep will come to by seeing it lean. I report what I heard; I must confess I do not perfectly comprehend this, nor combine it well with the assertion that this breed will stand hard fare, by perfection of form and habit.

24 The common proportion of a well fattened Leicester sheep is a little more than one ounce of bone to a pound of mutton.

25 Before I quit the subject of live stock, I shall note the measures of a few I took. A tup 2 years old, greatest girt 4 feet 7 inches, smallest ditto 4 feet, length from behind the head to the rump 3 feet; several 17 inches thick from side to side. A 3 year old tup, greatest girt 5 feet 2 inches, fore girt 5 feet, thick in carcase 20 inches, length 3 feet 7, length from his twist up to his rump, and along his back to his ears 4 feet 11, girt of his fore leg 5 inches, of his hind ditto 6 .Two-year old wethers rise from 2s to 45lb. a qr. The 9th of September, 1789, there was one of this breed, killed at Bakewell, in Derbyshire, only y years old, that weighed 10 score 2 lb. this, at 5d per lb would be 4l 4s. 6d. The weight, breed, &c. were, on a trial, proved in court at Leicester. Mr. Bakewell has bred his hogs also with much attention, he shewed me some porks inches shick of fat on the rib.

Measure of a cow, D. breadth from hip to hip 2 feet, thickness below the rump 15 inches. length 4 feet 8 inches. Another 2 feet 1 inch in the hips. A very old cow. the only one left, by the famous bull Twopenny 2 feet 2 inches in the hip, 2 inches wider than Lady Washington, and the widest cow I have yet measured of this breed.

26 Which ought to be published. Why not?

Arthur Young, Tours in England and Wales, selected from the Annals of Agriculture (London: London School of Economics, 1932)

Previous Selection