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Arthur Young


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Hull

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HULL

IN the the thirty years since I was at Hull, I conceive there are few places in the kingdom more improved than this. It was a close-built dirty, ugly place, that seemed to be far removed from all ideas of improvement. neatness, or beauty in buildings, whether public or private. The change effected is striking ! A new town is added, containing many very handsome, well-built houses: the streets are wide, and the houses elegant. A dock, covering ten acres, is dug, which contains a hundred and twenty ships, and cost 50,000l. raised in a hundred and twenty shares, of 250l. each; and such has been the prosperity of trade, that these shares now sell at 11001. and have as high as 1550l. Noble as this work is, it is insufficient for the shipping; and another is in contemplation, which will be effected when money is less valuable than it is at present. I lamented that so great a work should have been executed in brick.

This vast increase of commerce at Hull deserves particular attention; for it marks the rising prosperity of the kingdom, in the last thirty years, much more clearly than the progress of London or Liverpool. Those places have almost entirely engrossed the American trade; and their increase has depended a good deal on the immense and rapid increase of population in America: but Hull is a place that subsists by the consumption of our own country, demanding a vast increase of imports, and being able to pay for them by rising exports to long-established countries.

The navigation of the Humber is estimated at twenty millions sterling per annum. Immense exports pass by the Air and Calder; and they roughly estimate the imports at two hundred thousand tons, at the average of 30l. making 6,000,000l. They build many ships. at 6l. per ton, dead weight, for wood and iron; some to eight hundred and nine hundred tons; Greenlanders generally from three hundred to six hundred tons.?This is an increasing fishery, and has been of late very successful. I inquired if the gun-harpoon, introduced under the auspices of the Society of Arts, was in use; and was assured that none are used, though some are taken out by order of the ship-owners.

House rent is low. Provisions?Beef, 8d. ; mutton, 6d; skate, 1d. per lb. ; salmon, 1s. cod, 1d, smelts, 6d. a score. Rent of garden-ground, 4l. and 4l. 10s. an acre.

In the dock, the machine called the bear is generally at work, raising the warp; which, were it not well attended to, would soon fill up the whole. As I wished to know the quantity of warp deposited by the water of the Humber, Thomas Thomson, Esq.Of this place, (to whose kindness and attention I owe much,) introduced me to Mr. John Harrap, the dock company?s surveyor, a very ingenious and well-informed engineer, by whom I was favoured with the following particulars.

?Hull, 6th September, 1797.

?Calculation of the quantities of mud taken out of the Hull dock, in the summer months, from April to the month of November. The quantities in each year, from 1790,as follows:

Years. Tons.
1790 ? 27,018
1791 ? 20,755
1792 ? 22,489
1793 ? 19,393
1794 ? 28,833
1795 ? 27,122
1796 ? 21,123
???
7 ) 166,733
???
Average 23,819
???

?The mud costs 2 d. per ton taking out; the company finding machine, boats, and ropes.

?The average height of spring tides, in the dock, taking fourteen tides together, is nineteen feet six inches water upon the lock threshold; and is run out of the dock, at each tide, to the depth of sixteen feet six inches. In consequence of this, the depth of three feet of water on the surface of seven acres and a half, flows into the dock each tide, as above, in the course of spring tides.

?The average height of neap tides in the dock, taking fourteen tides together, is sixteen feet six inches water upon the lock threshold; and is run out of the dock, at each tide, to the depth of fourteen feet six inches. In consequence of this, the depth of two feet water each, the same surface as in the spring tides.

?The clear area of the dock is about ten acres and the mud is supposed to lie in the area of seven acres and a half, in consequence of its falling by the time it has reached two-thirds of the way up the dock.

?The great difference of the quantities of mud taken out in each year, is occasioned in part by the crowded state of the shipping, as particularly in the year 1796, &c.

Hence it appears, that ten acres of water, to the average depth of two feet and a half, deposits twenty-three thousand tons of warp per annum, or two thousand three hundred tons per acre. This is a curious fact; for it proves how amazingly loaded the water of the Humber is with this mud. I have heard it calculated that a hundred loads of marl adds about an inch to the soil of a field: if one hundred tons of warp does the same, two thousand three hundred tons would add twenty-three inches. But l do not conceive the idea to be accurate; and that the addition of so close a body as mud, subsided regularly from water, would not increase the soil more, probably, than eighteen inches. But this shows how much may be done in one season, by warping land; as practised on the lands adjoining the rivers which fall into this great estuary of the Humber.

But another fact arises from this account, which seems to me to be particularly interesting, and to demand, in a singular manner, the attention of farmers; for it shows how infinitely superior every branch of manufacture and of commerce is to agriculture, in the application of the mechanic powers. This machine, the bear, raises mud from the bottom of at least fourteen feet of water, delivers it into barges, and these barges go out into the Humber at a considerable distance, to discharge it for the small expence of 2d. per ton ! ! ! The men who so contract finding all labour, and horses to work the machine. A farmer pays as much, and in some places more, for raising earth into a cart. Thus infinitely superior is the merchant, even in the farmer?s own trade of raising earth ! I pay 3d. a cubical yard, which may be called a ton. for wheeling mud eighty yards; and these men take it up fourteen feet from below water, and carry it, I suppose. a mile, for less money ! Such facts are mortifying; they show how contented the whole race of agriculturists have slept for ages, while in manufactures and commerce every exertion of human abilities has been brought into full energy, to abridge labour, and lessen expences.

For the following satisfactory particulars I am in debted to Mr. Thomas Frost, of this town.

PARTICULARS OF THE TOWN OF KINGSTON-UPON-HULL.

EXTENT.

THE town of Kingston-upon-Hull is bounded on the east by the river Hull, on which it stands; on the south, by the river Humber; on the west, by the lordship of Myton; and on the north, by the lordship of Sculcoates.

It is divided into two parishes, viz. the Holy Trinity and Saint Mary; was formerly inclosed by walls, a ditch, or fosse, and other military works; and contains within the walls, (which were lately taken down,) an area of about se. venty- three acres of ground.

The county of the town of Kingston-upon-Hull, lies westward of the town of Hull; is supposed to contain about twelve thousand acres, and comprizes the lordship of Myton. and the several townships of Hessle, Anlaby, Tranby, Ferriby, Swanland, West Ella, Kirk Ella, and part of Willerby. This district was formerly a part of the county of York, but was separated therefrom, and, with the town of Hull, Formed into a county, by charter of the 25th of Henry the Sixth.

POPULATION.

The conjectures of the public respecting the population of Hull having been extremely varios, the Society for Literary Information in Hull, toward the latter end of the year 1792, in order accurately to ascertain their number, took an actual enumeration of the inhabitants, including those of the parish of Sculcoates, which, from its contiguity to Hull, may be considered as a part thereof.

The following is an abstract of the enumeration.

Families 5,256
Males 10,573
Females 11,713
_____
Total of inhabitants 22,286

Average of births for the years 1789, 1790, 1791.and 1792.

Trinity church 384
St. Mary?s, ditto 133
Sculcoates, ditto 90
Mr. Lambert?s chapel 45
Mr. Beverley?s, ditto 41
Mr. Green?s, ditto 31
Mr. Beatson?s, ditto 20
Quaker?s 5
Jews. 2
??
Total 752
??

Average of burials for the same periods.

Trinity church 400
St. Mary? s, ditto 144
Sculcoates, ditto 111
Quaker?s 4
Jews 1
???
Total 662
???

Average of inhabitants.

To a family 42 /10
Births 1 in 296 /10
Burials 1 in 336 /10

Number of females more than males 1140

NUMBER OF H0USES.

Number of houses in Hull, exclusive of Sculcoates, that pay the house or window- tax,, viz.

Single tenements 1607
Double ditto 109
??
Total 1716
??

HOUSES EXEMPT.

It is not known, with certainty, what number of houses in Hull are exempt from the house or window-tax.

By the act of parliament for laying a duty on inhabited houses, houses of less value than 5l. per annum, are not rateable to that tax; but to the window-tax they are rateable, let the value be ever so small.

It has been the custom in Hull, not to rate any person to the poor-rate unless they were legally settled in Hull, or rented 10l. a year, or where not likely, (when the rental was less than 10l. per annnm) to become chargeable; but as no settlement is gained by being assessed to and paying the house and window duty, it is imagined fewer on that account are exempt from those taxes, than from the poor-rate.

OCCUPATIONS.

Hull being a large sea-port town, the inhabitants thereof are principally engaged in commercial pursuits, and those in the neighbourhood in agriculture. The importations into Hull are, iron from Sweden, iron, timber, hemp and flax from Russia, and wine from Spain and Portugal.

MANUFACTURES.

There are no woollen or cotton manufactories in or near Hull; ? some sail-cloth and sacking is manufactured, but the quantity is not very considerable. There are also rope-makers, mast-makers, block-makers, six or seven yards for building, and as many dry docks for repairing ships; two sugar-houses, a soap-house, a paper-mill, and several mills for crushing rape-Seed and linseed, grinding flour, &c., some of which are worked by steam-engine, and the rest by wind.

PRICE OF PROVISIONS.

Both corn and shambles meat are at this time1 much higher, than at the same season of the year on an average for the last twenty years. Middling wheat is from 75s. to 81 s. per quarter. Beef, from 4d. to about 7d. per lb.; and mutton, from 5d. to 6d. per lb.

WAGES.

The wages of labourers in the town of Hull, are so various, that it is difficult to estimate them with any accuracy. In the neighbourhood of Hull, the wages of a common agricultural labourer, at this time, is from 1 s. 9d. to 2s. per day; more at the latter price than the former. Immediately preceding 1795, they might be estimated at 1s. 6d. to 1s. 8d. per day. At task-work, a man will earn from 2s. 6d. to 3s. per day. The wages of a woman, are from 6d. to 8d. per day. Wages in harvest are higher.

RENTAL.

The rental of the town of Hull may be estimated at from thirty-five to forty thousand pounds per annum.

. s. d.
The land tax for the town, is per ann. 1,541 16 8
Ditto for the county 511 5 8
?????
Making together 2,053 2 4
?????

The land for two or three miles round Hull is in grazing for the convenience of the inhabitants. The rent of that which is contiguous to the town, is from four to five pounds per acre. The rents decrease in proportion to the distance of the land from the town?At four or five miles from Hull, it is about thirty shillings per acre.

RELIGION.

The following is the state of dissenters in Hull.

Three Independent meeting-houses, attended by very numerous congregations. These are principally of the Calvanistic persuasion.

One Presbyterian meeting, Said to be of the Socinian cast.

One particular Baptist meeting.

One general ditto.

One Sandimanian ditto.

One Roman Catholic chapel.

One Methodist meeting.

One ditto, Lady Huntingdon?s.

One Quaker?s meeting.

In the year 1769. there were not more than five meeting-houses in the town.?Their increase is generally imputed to the want of room in the churches, which were originally only two a third was built in 1791.

ALEHOUSES.

The number of licensed alehouses in Hull this year (1796) 178
Ditto in the county 9
??
Making together 187
??

FARMS.

There are but few farms in the neighbourhood of Hull. The rentals vary. and are in general from fifty to two hundred pounds per annum. The tenure of the land, in the neighbourhood of Hull, is principally freehold. In Holdernesse, which lies east of Hull, the lands in several townships are copyhold.

The principal articles of cultivation, are wheat, oats, barley, and beans.

COMMONS AND WASTE LANDS.

There are but few commons, and little or no waste lands, in the neighbourhood of Hull.

INCLOSURES.

The lordship of Sculcoates, which lies north of, but is contiguous to the town of Hull, Probably contains about [blank] acres, and was inclosed upwards of a century ago

The township of Sutton and Stone Ferry, part of which extends nearly to the town of Hull, contains about 4,180 acres, and were inclosed by act of parliament in 1764.

Myton Carr, which lies west of, and is also contiguous to the town of Hull, contains about 170 acres, and was inclosed by act of parliament about the year 1771. The open fields of Hessle, Anlaby, and Tranby, which lie still further west of Hull, contain about 3,640 acres, and were inclosed by act of parliament in 1792. The open fields of West Ella, Kirk Ella, and Wellerby lie still further west of Hull, and contain about 1700 acres. An act has been obtained this year (1796) for the inclosure thereof.

The fields of Ferriby and Swanland contain about 4,900 acres, and are still open.

POOR.

In the 9th and 10th of King William the Third, an act passed for erecting workhouses, and houses of correction, in the town of Hull, for the better employment and maintenance of the poor: whereby several persons therein named were incorporated by the name of ?The Governor, Deputy Governor, Assistants, and Guardians of the Poor,? to have the care of, and provide for, the maintenance of all the poor within the town , of what age or kind soever; except such as should be sufficiently provided for by the charitable gifts of other persons, or in hospitals, or alms-houses.

In 1698, the corporation built a house, called the Charity Hall, in which the poor have since been, and continue to be maintained. As the poor increased, several other acts of parliament were obtained (viz. 8th Anne, c. II. 15th Geo. II. c. 10. and 28th Geo. II. c. 27.) to impower the corporationation to raise further Sums of money for the maintenance of the poor, than they were authorised by the act 9th and 10th of William the Third.

The following table shows the sums raised annually by virtue of those acts, from the year 1728 to the year 1796, inclusive.

Years. . s.
1728. ? 416 0
1729 ? 442 0
1730 ? 442 0
1731 ? 442 0
1732 ? 442 0
1733 ? 442 0
1734 ? 442 0
1735 ? 442 0
1736 ? 442 0
1737 ? 442 0
1738 ? 442 0
1739 ? 442 0
1740 ? 442 0
1741 ? 442 0
1742 ? 650 0
1743 ? 643 10
1744 ? 643 10
1745 ? 650 0
1746 ? 650 0
1747 ? 546 0
1748 ? 546 0
1749 ? 650 0
1750 ? 650 0
1751 ? 650 0
1752 ? 650 0
1753 ? 650 0
1754 ? 650 0
1755 ? 975 0
1756 ? 975 0
1757 ? 975 0
1758 ? 1300 0
1759 ? 1300 0
1760 ? 1300 0
1761 ? 1300 0
1762 ? 1300 3
1763 ? 988 0
1764 ? 988 0
1765 ? 988 0
1766 ? 832 0
1767 ? 702 0
1768 ? 728 0
1769 ? 832 0
1770 ? 832 0
1771 ? 832 0
1772 ? 988 0
1773 ? 1144 0
1774 ? 1144 0
1775 ? 1144 0
1776 ? 1144 0
1777 ? 1144 0
1778 ? 1248 0
1779 ? 1404 0
1780 ? 1456 0
1781 ? 1664 0
1782 ? 1664 0
1783 ? 1976 0
1784 ? 1976 0
1785 ? 2080 0
1786 ? 2288 0
1787 ? 2652 0
1788 ? 3276 0
1789 ? 3276 0
1790 ? 3276 0
1791 ? 2457 0
1792 ? 2457 0
1793 ? 3276 0
1794 ? 4095 0
1795 ? 5616 0
1796 ? 5616 0

It appears from this table, that war has at all times a great influence in increasing the poor-rates in Hull, owing to the great number of sailors who enter, or are impressed into his Majesty?s service; and whose families, not being left sufficiently provided for, are obliged to apply to the parish for relief.

This method of providing for the poor has been found by experience to tend greatly to the ease of the inhabitants of the town; and the poor receive a more comfortable maintenance and relief now, than before the passing of these acts.

In the last winter, (1795-6,) the number of persons maintained in the house were about 345. The number this day, (June I 8, 1796,) amounts to 214: besides which 900 families. containing about 2600 persons, (men, women, and children,) receive weekly relief out of the house. The out-relief for the week ending last Saturday. (June 11, 1796,) amounted to 47l. 2s. 6d. In addition to the above. 102 children are at this time nursed out of the house; the expence of which, for the week ending as above, amounted to 6l. 19s. 3d. The children in the house are employed in spinning jersey, their earnings amount annually to about 110l.

The old people teaze rope into oakum, for the use of ship carpenters: their earnings amount annually to about 30l.

The other persons in the house, that have been brought up to handicraft trades, such as shoemakers, taylors, &c. are constantly employed in making up and repairing clothes for the poor that are maintained in the house.

The women knit all the hosiery, and keep the house clean.

The children are instructed in reading and writing.-Prayers are read in the house daily; and on Sunday?s, all who are able, attend divine service, in the forenoon and the afternoon, in Trinity Church.

The internal affairs of this house, and the cleanliness with which it is kept, cannot be spoken of in too high terms. The late Mr. Howard confessed that the neatness and cleanliness of the poor-house was a credit to the town. All the rooms in the house are washed, and the bed-clothes well aired every week. The beds are all taken down once a year.

Births in the poor-house.

Years. Births. Years. Births.
1792 21 1794 25
1793 28 1795 27

The births for a greater number of years past could not conveniently be obtained, as no registry is kept of the births and burials in the house.

The births, upon an average, are about ten in a year, being chiefly of young unmarried girls, sent into the house to lie-in.

A table of baptisms and burials at the Holy Trinity church in Hull, for different years, from 1689 to 1753, inclusive.

Years. Baptisms. Burials.
1689 178 252
1690 167 187
1709 137 157
1710 157 204
1719 154 244
1720 149 280
1729 142 993
1730 183 216
1739 196 243
1740 192 216
1750 - 279
1751 - 231
1752 245 244
1753 243 262

A table of marriages, baptisms; and burials, distinguishing the sex ,at the Holy Trinity church, in Hull, for the several years ,from 1755 to 1795, inclusive.

Baptisms. Burials.
Years. Marriages. Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. Total.
1755 ? 141 135 276 140 134 274
1756 ? 123 119 242 159 160 319
1757 ? 108 130 238 136 183 319
1758 ? 112 120 232 159 156 315
1759 ? 103 126 229 115 131 246
1760 ? 125 128 253 152 175 327
1761 ? 122 115 237 124 128 252
1762 ? 118 114 232 148 195 343
1763 ? 104 126 230 135 144 279
1764 ? 114 130 244 106 118 224
1765 ? 131 110 241 137 167 304
1766 ? 130 134 264 137 128 265
1767 ? 141 117 258 143 155 298
1768 ? 133 141 274 112 115 227
1769 ? 138 144 282 186 192 378
1770 ? 138 157 295 134 150 284
1771 ? 136 126 262 101 97 204
1772 ? 134 155 289 164 181 345
1773 ? 154 74 228 148 211 359
1774 ? 157 168 325 115 130 245
1775 ? 144 152 296 166 190 356
1776 ? 164 162 326 146 173 319
1777 ? 191 151 342 152 141 293
1778 ? 151 166 317 188 195 383
1779 ? 145 166 311 150 167 317
1780 ? 142 145 287 190 201 391
1781 ? 141 151 292 176 160 336
1782 ? 173 165 338 145 164 309
1783 ? 160 110 270 226 213 439
1784 ? 168 162 330 170 190 360
1785 ? 200 188 388 178 156 334
1786 211 206 207 413 244 242 486
1787 195 218 194 412 185 186 371
1788 185 196 180 376 230 256 486
1789 210 206 204 410 260 298 558
1790 189 194 177 371 173 210 383
1791 201 175 202 377 195 281 376
1792 196 181 194 375 212 74 286
1793 205 193 191 384 186 199 385
1794 204 195 175 370 304 312 616
1795 187 184 205 389 200 239 439
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
6289 6216 12505 6833 7197 14030

A table of the marriages, baptisms, and burials, at Saint Mary?s church, in Hull, for the several years from 1754 1795, inclusive.

Baptisms. Burials.
Years. Marriages. Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. Total.
1754 ? ? ? 65 ? ? 48
1755 ? ? ? 59 ? ? 59
1756 ? ? ? 57 ? ? 81
1757 ? ? ? 59 ? ? 63
1758 ? ? ? 55 ? ? 73
1759 ? ? ? 65 ? ? 57
1760 ? ? ? 62 ? ? 79
1761 ? ? ? 59 ? ? 87
1762 ? ? ? 53 ? ? 81
1763 ? ? ? 66 ? ? 85
1764 ? ? ? 59 ? ? 70
1765 ? ? ? 62 ? ? 76
1766 ? ? ? 62 ? ? 57
1767 ? ? ? 73 ? ? 84
1768 ? ? ? 87 ? ? 70
1769 ? ? ? 83 ? ? 80
1770 ? ? ? 87 ? ? 65
1771 ? ? ? 98 ? ? 64
1772 ? ? ? 80 ? ? 105
1773 ? ? ? 81 ? ? 101
1774 ? ? ? 94 ? ? 85
1775 ? ? ? 78 ? ? 114
1776 ? ? ? 87 ? ? 108
1777 ? ? ? 98 ? ? 110
1778 ? ? ? 89 ? ? 114
1779 ? ? ? 89 ? ? 106
1780 ? ? ? 75 ? ? 109
1781 ? ? ? 98 ? ? 99
1782 ? ? ? 88 ? ? 107
1783 ? ? ? 95 ? ? 157
1784 ? ? ? 116 ? ? 123
1785 ? ? ? 120 ? ? 129
1786 60 54 57 111 68 69 137
1787 60 53 71 124 56 82 138
1788 54 54 64 118 78 85 163
1789 47 62 83 145 69 97 166
1790 48 68 65 133 68 61 129
1791 57 58 47 105 78 60 138
1792 60 61 76 137 72 61 133
1793 62 61 58 119 60 65 125
1794 60 67 65 132 115 117 232
1795 62 78 49 127 64 67 131
?? ??
3750 4338

N. B. Most of the dissenters in Hull, baptize and register the baptisms at their respective chapels, so that the same are not included in the above tables of baptisms, at the churches of the Holy Trinity and St. Mary. The proportion which the former bear to the latter, may be seen in the ? Average of Births for the Years 1789, 1790, 1791, and I792.?

The Quakers and jews in Hull, having burial-places of their own; their burials are not included in the above tables. The proportion they bear to the other burials in Hull, may be reen in the ? Average of Burials,? for the above years.

A table of the marriages, baptisms, and burials, distinguishing the sex, at Sculcoates church, for the several years, from 1755 to 1795, inclusive.

Baptisms. Burials.
Years. Marriages. Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. Total.
1755 4 16 8 24 13 10 23
?56 10 8 8 16 12 12 24
?57 9 9 13 22 9 16 25
?58 8 9 14 23 24 18 42
?59 6 13 20 33 12 22 34
?60 6 10 13 23 30 26 56
?61 4 11 11 22 22 25 47
?62 7 13 12 25 24 24 48
?63 12 7 8 15 22 28 50
?64 10 18 15 33 17 25 43
?65 14 6 10 16 32 26 58
?66 4 11 11 22 22 17 39
?67 12 10 22 32 20 25 45
?68 8 11 17 28 17 34 51
?69 8 4 20 24 35 35 70
?70 5 17 19 36 23 21 44
?71 8 11 14 25 22 23 45
?72 11 17 13 30 23 22 45
?73 12 9 17 26 39 29 68
?84 20 31 33 64 39 48 87
?85 12 37 27 64 31 39 70
?86 18 35 31 66 62 50 112
?87 24 37 19 56 26 39 65
?88 33 40 32 72 49 55 104
?89 37 34 34 68 77 64 141
?90 39 34 47 81 34 38 72
?91 41 43 53 96 39 43 82
?92 48 50 50 100 61 69 130
?93 33 59 45 104 50 41 91
?94 48 55 59 114 103 78 181
?95 64 57 46 103 39 48 87
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
714 936 971 1907 1355 1436 2791

List of friendly societies in Hull, distinguishing such of them as have had their rules confirmed by the magistrate.

Rules confirmed:

Societies Names. No. of Members. When Instituted.
Unanimous 212 July 2, 1783:
Old Union 188 Nov. 6, 1782.
Provident Brotherhood 68 Sept. 7, 1782.
Duchess of York 43 April 20, 1792.
Good Agreement 101 Dec. 21, 1789.
Old Amicable. 164 Jan: 6; 1783.
Good Intent 131 Sept. 4, 1787.
True Friendship 51 Jan. 1, 1790.
Duke of York 80 Aug. 16, 1793.
United Seamen 141 Jan. 1, 1782.
Duke of Clarence 65 Feb. 4. 1791.
Sisterly Union 51 Mar. 16, 1791.
Concord 151 Jan. 2. 1787.
Diligent 31 Feb. 14, 1792.
Prince of WaIes 45 Aug. 12. 1788.
British Constitutional, or Tradesmen Friendly 71 July 13, 1789.
Princess Royal 60 Nov. 19, 1792.
Jubilee 86 April 13, 1788.
Loving Brotherly 24 Aug. 19, 1793.
Agreeable 75 1788.

Rules not confirmed:

Societies Names. No. of Members. When Instituted.
Constitutional 78 Mar. 12, 1789.
Ropers Friendly 139 Oct. 14. 1777.
Second Friendly 166 April 1, 1771.
Fortunate 90 April 4. 1788.
Generous Friends 45 Sept. 19, 1791.

Rules not confirmed:

Union Society Benevolent Female
RoyaI Friendly New Amicable
Fortunate Society Church and King, and
King and Constitution
United
Social Free Burghers.
Brotherly Friendly Brotherly
Queen Charlotte King George
Benevolent King William III.
New Sisterly Loyal British
Revolution Society New Brotherly
Old Benevolent Old and New Friendly
Humane Princess Elizabeth
Brotherly Union
Britannia Well-disposed Brotherhood
Brotherly

In these useful societies, or private fraternities, each member deposits a certain sum of money monthly, as a fund for the support of such of the members, as, through sickness or infirmity, are unable to procure it for themselves; and to bury them decently when dead. These institutions have been found of great utility, particularly in easing the parish rates.

DIET OF LABOURERS.

The usual diet of labourers in Hull and its neighbourhood is wheaten bread; but Since the great advance in the price of wheat, about two-thirds wheat, and one-third rye: the latter is about half the price of the former. The cheapest sort of butcher?s meat. Potatoes and fish:? the latter may be frequently bought on moderate terms.

EARNINGS AND EXPENCES OF LABOURERS.

The earnings of a labourer have already been mentioned under the title ? Wages.? Including the increase of wages in harvest, and the advantages arising from task work, those of an industious man may be estimated at about forty pounds per annum, (exclusive of the earnings of his wife and children,) a Sum equal to the Support of a man and his wife, and from two to three children , which it is conceived is about the average of families.

Mr. Davis thinks a man and his wife, and four or five children, only a medium. His supposition seems to be grounded on Price?s calculation of five to a house, which has since been found too high: four and a half is the present estimate, and perhaps much nearer the truth; and even this estimate is not of a family , but of the inhabitants of a house , in which there may be more than one family ,2 or there may be lodgers that are not children. If, therefore, according to the most accurate calculation. there be only four and a half individuals to a house , Mr. Davis must be too high in estimating six and a half (or a man and his wife, and from four to five children) to a family.

TRADE AND COMMERCE.

The following table shows the state of the trade and commerce of the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, at the close of the last, and beginning of the present century.

A state of the revenue of the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, from the year I689 to the year 1706.

. s. d.
From Jan. 1, 1689 to Jan. 1, 1690 13,191 12 10
???? ???? ??90 ????? ??91 12,573 4 1
???? ???? ??91 ????? ??92 30,055 0 6
???? ???? ??92 ????? ??93 19,136 1 1
???? ???? ??93 ????? ??94 18,230 2 9
???? ???? ??94 ????? ??95 17,936 1 1
???? ???? ??95 ????? ??96 18,471 4 10
???? ???? ??96 ????? ??97 14,459 9 5
???? ???? ??97 ????? ??98 19,759 14 6
???? ???? ??98 ????? ??99 25,157 18 8
???? ???? ??99 ????? 1700 26,472 11 6
???? ???? 1700 ????? 1701 26,287 0 8
???? ???? 1701 ????? 1702 23,962 12 4
???? ???? 1702 ????? 1703 17,948 5 3
???? ???? 1703 ????? 1704 18,057 18 11
???? ???? 1704 ????? 1705 20,153 15 10
???? ???? 1705 ????? 1706 21,283 0 1

The following table being compared with the above, will show the progress trade and commerce have made at Hull during the present century.

A State of the revenue of the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, from the year I766 to the year 1792.

. s. d.
From Jan. 5, 1766 to Jan. 5, 1767 72,297 18 10
???? ???? ??67 ????? ??68 78,592 0 11
???? ???? ??68 ????? ??69 83,606 18 0
???? ???? ??69 ????? ??70 91,502 19 11
???? ???? ??70 ????? ??71 88,593 7 13/4
???? ???? ??71 ????? ??72 87,704 19 5
???? ???? ??72 ????? ??73 79,752 7 9
???? ???? ??73 ????? ??74 87,008 15 10
???? ???? ??74 ????? ??75 88,903 15 0
???? ???? ??75 ????? ??76 91,366 3 0
???? ???? ??76 ????? ??77 86,910 10 10
???? ???? ??77 ????? ??78 90,857 5 9
???? ???? ??78 ????? 79 78,229 3 11
???? ???? ??79 ????? 80 79,293 12 3
???? ???? ??80 ????? 81 113,804 0 0
???? ???? ??81 ????? 82 107,976 14 0
???? ???? ??82 ????? 83 86,521 19 5
???? ???? ??83 ????? 84 126,660 2 8
???? ???? ??84 ????? 85 147,438 3 9
???? ???? ??85 ????? 86 125,635 17 6
???? ???? ??86 ????? 87 149,805 0 0
???? ???? ??87 ????? 88 132,844 3 3
???? ???? ??88 ????? 89 145,004 2 1
???? ???? ??89 ????? 90 154,506 10 4
???? ???? ??90 ????? 91 135,732 7 8
???? ???? ??91 ????? 92 175,872 1 7
???? ???? ??92 ????? 93 199,988 4 3

A still further idea of the trade of Hull may be formed from a view of the number of ships, with their tonnage, employed in carrying it on, which may be seen in the following table.

Ships from foreign parts, and coasters, with the tonnage of each, that arrived in the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, in the following years.

Years Ships from
Foreign Parts.
Tons. Coasters Tons Tot.Tons. Tot. ships.
1788 459 90,111 599 49,093 139,204 1058
1789 469 91,497 675 51,834 143,331 1144
1790 492 97,158 778 59,157 156,315 1270
1791 637 119,840 800 61,707 181,547 1437
1792 673 135,346 849 66,443 201,789 1522
1793 561 119,020 829 64,383 183,403 1390
1794 457 88,932 789 58,867, 47,799 1246
1795 453 87,448 870 63,088 150,536 1323

The five first years in the above table were those immediately preceding the war.


1 June 30, 1796.

2 From a great number of cases, it appears that this is much too low. A.Y.

Arthur Young, Tours in England and Wales, selected from the Annals of Agriculture (London: London School of Economics, 1932)

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